YATIRIMLARIMIZ TARİHÇE KÜLTÜREL FAALİYETLER SOSYAL HİZMETLER TAŞINMAZ VAKIF KÜLTÜR VARLIKLARI VAKIF KAYITLARI ARŞİVİ TAŞINIR VAKIF KÜLTÜR VARLIKLARI VAKIFLAR HAKKINDA VAKIF NASIL KURULUR? BEYANNAME VE BİLDİRİMLER VAKIF İSTATİSTİKLERİ VGM ETİK KOMİSYONU HİZMET STANDARTLARI YAYINLAR PLAN, PROGRAM ve RAPORLAR İDARİ BİRİM KİMLİK KODLARI MALİ TABLOLAR
 
İhale İlanları
[1] Bina Yapımı [6] Eski Eser Onarımı [3] Eski Eser Proje Temini [15] Kiralık Gayrimenkuller [1] Satılık Gayrimenkuller [2] Yapım Onarım Karşılığı Kiralama [1] İhale İlanı İptali [1] Restorasyon Karşılığı Uzun Süreli Kiralama
İhale İlanları
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dictionary of Foundational Terms

A B C Ç D E F G H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S T U Ü V Y Z

      

      

      

      

      A

      ÂBÂ - ECDÂD:Aba is plural of eb and ecdad is plural of cedd. Eb means father, ancestor and grandfather. In terms of points such as affiliation and inheritance, '' father '' and '' grandfather '' are discussed in some matters in law. Affiliation consists of combination and relation among those who cognate and following come into existence from each other that it is divided into two parts as tulen and arzen. Tulen affiliation is combination among descents and accessories such as father, son and grandchild. Upward persons are descent part of tulen affiliate and downward persons are accessory party of tulen affiliate. Arzen affiliate is a combination and relation existing among relatives which branch without upward from an ancestor.  Combination among fraternals, nephews, uncles, aunts and their children is a sample thereof and they are as called havaşi and collateral kinship. With collateral kinship terms in specified articles this kind of affiliate relation is stated. Whenever aba and ancestor are expressed descent part of tulen affiliate is meant and whenever child and descendants are expressed accessory part of tulen affiliate is meant. 

      ÂB-KEŞ: Ab means water, keş derives from ''keşiden'' which mean to draw. Ab-keş means a person who draws water. A person who supplies water from wells and fountains to meet water requirement of charity organizations of foundations. 

      ÂB-RÎZÎ: A servant spilling/cleaning pots such as dirty and sewage containers and havruz in hospitals. 

      ÂDİ GEDİK: Foundation are gediks other than Haremeyn, that is, Mekke-Medine ve Mahmud-ı Adlî gediks. As Haremeyn and Mahmud-ı Adlî foundation gediks contain some legal clauses such as to ensure debt, they are called as nizamlı gedik.

      AHFÂD : is plural of Hafid. Hafid means grandchild. Children of children of a person and their children are grandchild of the said person. Since ahfad includes to descendants in every generation, it is found necessary to expound ahfad term not to understand as descendant of child as per Article 1 of Arâzî-i Emîrîye ve Mevkûfenin Tevsi-i İntikali law dated 1284 and it is explained that what is meant from ahfad term by stating '' in the event that possessors of demesne and entailed lands does not have children, land their ownership to secondary descendant, that is, to son and daughter of boys and girls''.

      AİLE VAKFI (FAMILY FOUNDATION) is a foundation established for interest of child, descendant and family members. Family Foundations are organizations that are established to pay required expenses arising for the purposes of reaching education and morality of family members and similar aims in accordance with inheritance law under article 322 of Civil Code. With last clause of specified article,  all and kind actions relating to allowance of a property and right to a family which cannot be assigned again and transferring among family members and combination with the thought that of implementation of such an action are forbidden. Both independently and combination allocation of a property to any family and transfer among family members were permissible according to previous rules.

      AKÂR is a property such as building, land and garden whose transportation are impossible to the another place. This kind of property means real estate. Real Akar consists of land and field. Including of buildings and trees in Akar is due to being integral part of ground where they are located. People uses Akar term for real estate providing rent income. Also gardens used like housing and benefited from building and fruit individually are called as Akar. This meaning arises from usage in custom.

      AKÂRÂT-I MEVKÛFE ( ENTAILED AKARAT): Akarat term is plural of Akar term. It means entailed Akars providing income. Entailed properties are two parts. One part of them müessesat-ı Hayriye ( Charity Institutions ) and other part of them Akarat-ı Mevkufe ( Entailed Akarat ) mean. Perpetuity, liveliness, monitoring and surveillance of Charity Institutions, repair and maintenance, expendation and rebuilding are subject to some expenses.  Akars to income such as caravanserai, bath, hamlet and garden are dedicated. Required expenses of charity institutions are covered by incomes to be obtained from these properties. It is not become inevitable being Akar of property to be dedicated to meet expenses of charity institutions. It is sometimes money and requirements are provided with revenues obtained from this money by running this money. For these purposes either Akar or money are usually endowed as well as charity institutions.  Revenues of entailed Akar in foundations which are dedicated for the poor are expended for their repair and maintenance and the remain part is expended for the poor as per conditions. 

      AKÇE (COIN) According to historical information Akçe is first Ottoman silver coin issued in the time of Sultan Osman Gazi, one of sultans of Ottoman.  It is coined in the year 729 H according to Islamic Calendar in Bursa. Up to that time coins of Seljug Empire were in circulate on the basis of dirham.  In mentioned date dirham was left and coin (Akçe ) which means white metallic money in Mongolian language was accepted. Ten- coin metallic money was available in the period of Fatih Sultan Mehmet as well as two-coin metallic money was available in the period of Osman Gazi. From time to time changes occured both in weight and in carat of coin. These changes are mostly carried out by means of reducing the weight and carat of the coin, finally this condition causes to adulterations and imitations. Until 1234 although the coin is currency in this date issuing of the coin are left due to their counterfeit are issued and kurus-based procedure is accepted. Establishment of equivalent of coins circulated in various periods with metallic money and banknotes which were circulated afterward is a quite problem. However determining of this equivalent is possible due to current value of silver, in terms of purchasing power and changes in prices of goods it is completely very difficult to find its equivalent. Pursuant to stipulated charge and price in some foundations coin terms are incidentally seen such as '' give coin so-and -so ''. Instead of looking their equivalent it is more acceptable to determine amount to be paid to rightful owners in accordance with ratio by taking into consideration of incomes and good prices of these foundations.

       AKİB means  heel of foot, back of foot. Its plural is a'kab. That's way children of an individual, their children and children of children mean akib of that individual. According to custom akib is child and child of son and child of child. This term does not include in children of daughters. In brief an individual's akib are his/her father in terms of affiliation or are those coming until that individual. Those whose fathers does not come from that individual's child are not deemed as akib.   This term is incidentally seen in some foundations and it is commented under custom and as written. For example a person says that '' revenue of my foundation must be submitted to A and after that says revenue of my foundation must be submitted to A's akib, as long as he/she lives A and A' children and children of his/her son after A's death are entitled to revenue of the foundation. 

      AKREB is next-of-kin. Akreb in foundation is next-of-kin in terms of affiliation. Whoever next-of-kin to founder person in terms of affiliation and maternity provision is implemented for him/her. For example child is closer from mother and father. Nevertheless if a person stipulates to endow all or a part of income of his/her foundation to his/her akreb or after that the poor, when founder's son and daughter or one of them or their father and mother come the said incomes are given to son or daughter but are not given to father and mother. If the closest relatives are several interest belongs to them in equal. One of akreb deceases its share is not given to other akreb, it is given to the poor. If other akreb deceases, next relatives cannot receive anything and the share leaves for the poor. But if there is an explicitness related to giving to next persons as el-akreb fe'l akreb this circumstance is excluding.  For example according to above mentioned example if founder has a son, a daughter and father son and daughter receives income of foundation as per condition.  If son dies half share belonging to him is given to the poor. After that when daughter dies income completely remains the poor. But if founder says that revenue of my foundation expend to my akaribim by means of el-akreb fe'l akreb and after that expend for the poor, in this circumstance since there is not a child it is given to father. As above mentioned what is meant by akreb term is the closest relative to foundation in terms of affiliation and maternity. Akreb does not mean close relative in respect of heredity. Thus his/her priority does not taking into consideration. Because heredity uses as base other considerations but does not take notice affiliation and maternity.  The problem may be summarized by those general rules: 1- Founder's the closest relative is his/her component, after that is inherent. But founder's father is preferred to son of his son and founder's mother and father are preferred to son of their son. 2-  Founder's inherent is antecedent from component of component. But it is preferred to son of founder's son 3- Founder's component is antecedent from component of inherent. But son of founder's son and daughter of founder's daughter are the closest from fraternal. 4- Person who is affiliated with a degree to foundation is the closest from person who is affiliated with two degree to foundation. But daughter of founder's daughter are preferred to son of son of founder's son.

      AKREB-İ MEKNİYYAT: Akreb is plural of karib coming to mean near of kin; mekniyat is plural of mekniyyün coming to mean allegory. Kinaye means to expound a wording whose meaning is explicit. As third person pronouns are not understandable adequately their meanings other than first and second pronouns, this kind of pronouns is expressed as kinaye and in the absence of a contrary presumption, allegory pronouns are used for the closest reference. For example if it is written in a foundation certificate - charter that a creator of waqf stipulated his/her tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) firstly to himself/herself, afterwards to his/her son M and afterwards to his/her child, pronounce in child wording belongs to M and it is decided that intended thing here is M's child. It is not accepted by belonging to foundation. But related to allegory pronouns if there is an allegory with which distant relative is intended, in that case allegory is referred to distant relative according to implication without ascribing to close relative. For example as indicated in abovementioned example, if it is expressed that creator of a waqf stipulated tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) to his/her son M and afterwards to his/her child for firstly his/her desire afterward his/her personality, it is understood that creator of a waqf is intended from pronoun in expression to his/her child but M through for his/her personality allegory and this expression requires to be expounded in this way.

      AKRİBÂ: Akriba is plural of karib. Karib comes to mean a person who is near to creator of waqf. Akriba term includes in born children after establishment of foundation as well as including in livingness' at time of foundation. If a creator of waqf says that he/she stipulated his/her foundation's income to akriba without conforming to his/her desire, his/her own relative is understood from this expression in terms of manners and customs.  Children and parents do not include in akriba term. Because these persons are not called akriba in point of manners and customs, in other words when akriba is said, the things that we meant are relatives who are not close to these persons. According to a judicial opinion, person who is the nearest to akriba in foundation is preferred and also according to another judicial opinion  it includes in all relatives -either near relative or distant relative- and they become right holder in favor of foundation equally. Conditional foundations to akriba absolutely include in either Muslim or non-Muslim, either rich or poor, either small or large under any circumstances in the scope of concept of condition. But akriba term is registered as Muslim and non-Muslim or rich and poor, practice is realized according to registration.

      AKSA'L-EB: This Arabian composite consisting of aksa term who comes to mean very distance and finally, and father term who comes to mean eb comes to mean very distance father in terms of wordbook sense. He is last father of a person perceiving Islam age, in other word Esteemed Mohammed Prophet's golden age and being from same generation with Prophet and becoming Muslim and non-Muslim of this person is not condition to include in the scope of aksa'l-eb term.

      ÂL: It comes to mean children, spouse and amenable to the Prophet and also it contains senses such as competent, original included, possessor, owner, wife and husband etc.  They are those who perceive Islam age from father's side and are included to last father. Previous people from him don't include in Âl conception. According to some comments, last father must be Muslim and also according to other comments it does not become inevitable to be Muslim for last father, accordingly to perceive the Muslim is enough for him. Either Âl or competent terms refer to people who are livingness at time of the foundation and who born after establishment of foundation within a time less than six months as from arising of income and they include in foundation.

      ALÂMET: It comes to mean sign and mark. It points to the purpose . For example stones laid down in turn to show the boundaries of a field are signs and marks. Besides each of signs put in roads to indicate distance and direction is sign. Other than these seal, stamp, sign and mark showing construction place of anything or sellers of them.

      ÂLİM: It comes to mean a person who has skills and experiences and is specialist in a science or several sciences in terms of manners and customs and who duly knows useful sciences such as Islamic law, comment and hadith.

      A'MÂ: It comes to mean a blind person. A'ma term which is expressed in foundations bears this sense. Because a'ma term among people specifies a person that he/she is deprived of seeing bless. Those who see slight and much are out of a'ma term used in foundations.

      AN'ANE: It is a word shortened from Arabic an-fülânin, an-fülânin composition. It comes to mean narration and rumor narrated from mouth to mouth. Its plural is "an'anât" term. They are social, ethical and legal matters which are narrated from mouth to mouth in terms of manner and customs such as An'ane-i diniye, an'ane-i tarihiye and which are accepted positively and are obeyed and implemented with same feelings. Customs are an actual an'ane and in the scope of that explanation as well.

      WAREHOUSE KEEPER: It comes to mean a person who is appointed to keep  things such as commodity, drug, food and drink in institutions such as hospitals, almshouses. Warehouse keepers are usually called as "emîn-i mahzen" in many foundations and it is a person that warehouse is entrusted him. These persons act in accordance with orders and instructions of institutions where they belong to.

      ARAZİ: It is plural of Arz term. Arz comes to mean land and field. It is separated into sections such as Arazi-i mevkufe, arazi-i emîriyye, arazi-i metruke, arazi-i mevat.  

      ARAZİ-İ MEVKÛFE: It is a land whose rakabe (possession of a property )and miri gelir ( income belonging to state or sultan ) are dedicated and allowed to a purpose. It is separated into two sections such as arazi-i mevkufe-i sahiha and arazi-i mevkufe-i gayr-i sahiha.

      ARAZİ-İ MEVKÛFE-İ SAHİHA: It is a land that is dedicated for a purpose in order. This land must be dedicated property. Consequently to dedicate a place in truth either it must have been rejuvenated from property lands inside county and village or it must have been rejuvenated from arazi-i öşriyye and haraciye or it must have been rejuvenated unclaimed land or it must have been purchased from treasury.  Explicit foundation provisions are absolutely effective in such arazi-i mevkufe-i sahiha.

      ARAZİ-İ MEVKÛFE-İ GAYR-İ SAHİHA: It is a land dedicated by order owner or other persons with permission of order owner. Foundation status of such land consists of allocation of mir-i gelir( income belonging to state or sultan ) such as tithe and taxes or allocation of right of disposition or right of disposition together with mir-i gelir( income belonging to state or sultan ) for a certain purpose. In such land foundation status does not concern to rakabe (possession of a property ) and mir-i gelir( income belonging to state or sultan ), right of disposition and rakabe (possession of a property) belong to treasury. This foundation is called as foundation or guide foundation due to its allocation form. When mir-i gelir( income belonging to state or sultan ) is devoted, mir-i gelir ( income belonging to state or sultan ) of that land such as öşrü bedel-i ( tithe value ), öşrü ( tithe ) and ferağ harcı (alienation fee ) and intikal (transfer ) belong to allocated purpose and when right of disposition is devoted, only right of disposition belong to allocated purpose and when both of them is devoted they belong to allocated purpose.

       ARAZİ-İ MUHTEKERE: It is a leased land to erect a building and plant a tree on it by real persons or legal entities or to give certain price to owner of land every year in return for stopping of these activities. As long as a certain price is paid, owner of building and tree have right to stop erecting building and planting tree. Mukataalı ( leasing of a land or income belonging to state in return for a price or transferring of it temporarily ) foundation is in the scope of arazi-i muhtekere.2  

      ARAZİ-İ ÖŞRİYE: It is a kind of property land and is subject to tithe. In other words a treasury stock for one tenth

      is taken on its income and all and any property rights are implemented on it. Such land is taken in possession in different forms. Either land on conquered place is left those who accepts the Islam or the said place is allocated to the Muslims due to escaping of people living there or the said place is given to combatants. Since these lands are subject to the tithe, they are also called as ''arazi-i sadaka" ( a land given as charity ).

      ASLAH: It is derived of "salah" term. It comes to mean very righteousness and morally justified. In some foundation certificate - charters there are some conditions such as '' I will be trustee for my foundation as long as I live, after I died my child and the best fit and adult of adult of children of my child shall be trustee. In such foundations, after creator of Waqf died, one of children of creator of wagf who is morally justified and is competent  to conduct the foundation affairs become trustee.

      ASL-I VAKF: Asl comes to mean root and vakf comes to mean to confine, retain and to abandon from action. Asl-ı vakf are commodities  which are related to foundation conception. They are called as asl-ı vakf either these commodities are dedicated as from commencement or they are added to commodities devoted afterwards.

      ÂSTÂNE: This word is Persian and comes to mean door sill. At one time big Islamic monasteries were called as âstâne (âsitâne). Formerly although Âstâne-i saltanat, Âstâne-i Devleti Aliyye terms are used in İstanbul, capital of government, these expressions are left afterwards.

      AŞŞÂB: It is an emphasis expression derived of "uşb" root. It comes to mean a person who picks healing herbs and flowers to produce drug and prepares them for hospitals as per medical law. Aşşab profession was a branch of pharmacy art. Such expressions are mostly coincided in foundation certificate - charters of hospitals. In brief there are such expressions in foundation certificate - charters of hospital established in Bursa by deceased Yıldırım Bayezıt in 802. 

      AŞİRET: It comes to mean posterity in the foundation literature. Posterity means child and it contains near and distance child and descendants (grandson ) in literature and son and daughter are equal. For example if a founder stipulates his/her foundation 's income to A's aşiret or if a founder stipulates his/her foundation 's income to the poor after A's offspring ends, irrespective of the generation,  income will be divided between child and descendents in equally. If one of them deceases, income will be divided among the living. But if founder cites a wording indicating how income will be distributed, for example if founder says that nothing will be given to last generation when there is a pre - generation in distribution of income, it will be necessary to act as per this condition. When offspring ends completely, income of foundation is distributed to the poor.

      AŞR-İ ŞERİF: It states ten verses from Koran. Founders stipulates to read aşr - ı şerif in foundation certificate - charters in certain times, this says that '' read the said ten verses from Koran ''. Verses to be read may be less and much than ten verses. In any case condition of creator of waqf is accepted to be fulfilled. But according to condition it is suitable to read all of ten verses.

      ATÂ-ATİYYE: Atâ comes to mean gratuity and goodness in wordbook. Thing that is given as gratuity is called as atiyye. Creator of waqf may dedicate his/her foundation's income to the rich and the poor or partly the rich and the partly poor or partly for charity without being for service.  If dedication is performed for service, it is considered to be implemented for a fee.

      AVÂİD: It is plural Âide. Although  Âid comes to mean commodity and money, it changes according to use manner. Avâid comes to mean gratuitous things and gratuities in foundation language. 

      AVÂİD-İ VAKIF: Avâid term is plural of âid. It means incomes of foundation. Incomes of foundation consists of two parts. One of them is called as âidat-ı şer'iyye and other is called as âidat-ı örfiyye. Âidat-ı şer'iyye is income of  foundation's real estate  and money, like income and rent of real estate and  interest of cash. Âidat-ı Örfiyye consisting of atiyye and so forth which are donated customarily. For example if it is required to give an amount as gift from income for foundation other than fee harvest by those who cultivate the land of foundation based on manner and customs, this given amount is deemed from Âidat-ı Örfiyye and is spent for requirements and interests of foundation.  Atiyye given to trustee is accepted as bribe and is prohibition.

      AYN-I MEVKÛF: It is a dedicated commodity. Also money or commodity added to this commodity or money and commodity obtained by means of exchange are considered as ayn-ı mevkuf. Also original of dedicated commodity comes to this mean.

      AVÂRIZ:It is plural of Ârıza. Ârıza is an undesired circumstance and disaster such as illness and death ( see Avârız Foundation).

      AVÂRIZ VAKFI (FOUNDATION):Some foundations have been established by benefactors in some villages and quarters to enshroud the dead from the poor and to feed, live off and treat persons who are sickened and are not professional responsible person and are without money and to repair wells, fountains and  water channels if required. Such foundations are called as  avarız foundation. These foundations undertake humanitarian and municipal services and aids which must be performed partly of wholly by municipalities. Income of avarız foundations are absolutely spent for people's problems such as  illness and death without making Muslim and non Muslim discrimination. The provision is like this in foundations which are conditional to avarız   of a handicraftsman, in other words even if founder is Muslim and if there is no provision to the contrary, foundation's income is spent avarız and requirements of this handicrafts - either Muslim or non Muslim - as per founder's condition. Avarız foundations  are transferred into municipalities according to Municipalities Law numbered 1580.

      ÂYENDE: It is a Persian word. It is a present participle derived of "âmeden" root and means coming person.  "Âyende" ve "revende" terms passing in foundation's guest houses, small Islamic monasteries and Islamic monasteries come to mean visitors ( see Rvende ).

      ÂYET (VERSE): It comes to mean sign or event to be drawn a lesson in wordbook. It is used in mahsusat and makulat. Every part in the sections of Koran is called as verse. Âyet and âyat, which is plural of âyet, terms written in  foundation certificate - charters are given a sense conditionally and according to presumptions.

          

 

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      B

      BATIN: It comes to mean abdomen and nomad group that is smaller than clan in wordbook. It is used in meaning of degree in generation in terms of manners and customs. For example creator of waqf stipulates income of his/her foundation to his/her child or child of his/her child from generation to generation, preceding generation in degree are children of creator of waqf and second generation are children of children and third generation are children of children of children.

      BATNEN BA'DE BATNİN (FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION): It means degree in generation and refers to order. Therefore in foundation stipulated to child from generation to generation if there is anybody in pre-generation second generation and if there is a child in second generation third generation cannot make use of this condition. For example if creator of waqf  has a child, child of his/her child and if creator of waqf has child of his/her child, child of child of his/her child cannot make use of this condition.

      BELDE KADISI ( Muslim Judge / Kadi) : He is a judge appointed to solve legal conflicts among people or between people and state in ever city and town.   In some foundation certificate-charters, foundation's tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) is stipulated to '' himself/herself or his/her child and the eldest and mature of child of or his/her child'' after his / her death.   If Creator of wagf's child's offspring ends, foundation's tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates will be performed ''by person appoindet by muslim judge''. In this case if Creator of wagf's child's offspring ends, person who will be trustee to foundation will be authorized and appointed by judge of relevant country.

      BERÂT: It is a sultan decree conferring titles such as imamate, rhetoric, foundation's tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates, rank, certificate of achievement and or privilege.

      BEVVÂB: It comes to mean gatekeeper. Person who opens and closes the school in time and who supervises cleaning of the school and children's attitude and behaviors is called as school bevvap and person who opens and closes doors of hospital in certain times and who prevents other persons to enter to hospital excluding certain times is called as hospital bevvap.

      BEY'U MEN YEZÎD: It comes to mean to sell anything to increasing person.

      BİMÂRHÂNE: Bimâr means patient. Hospitals where mentally ills were treated were called as Bimâr at one time. This hospital is called as mental hospital in colloquial speech and mentally ills are treated and kept there.

      BİMÂRİSTAN: It absolutely comes to mean hospital. Dârü'ş-şifa term is used for hospital term in Arabic.

      BİRR: It means gift and goodness. Birr for parents comes to mean to serve and bestow upon them. Also Birr term means charity and goodness. When said such a one is ehl-i birr, it is understood that he/she is benefactor. Although it has other meanings, it is used in speakings and foundation certificate-charters.

      BİNT: It means daughter. Its plural is benât. When Ayşe bint-i Ahmed is said, this expression means Ayşe, Ahmed's daughter. If it is written with an identifier, "ibneti" term is added. For example Ayşe Hanım ibneti Ahmed etc.  If there are two women as doubly and if there is woman more than two as plural is expressed. Like Fatma, Ayşe bintey Ahmed. Fatma, Ayşe, Sa'diye benât-ı Ahmed gibi. If there is male among them, "veledey"  is said in its doubly and "evlad" is said in its plural. Like Ahmed ve Fatma veledey Hasan. Ahmed, Fatma, Alime evlad-ı Mehmed.

      

      

      

      

      C

      CÂBİ-İ VAKF: It means collector who collects income of foundation. One or a few collectors are appointed for foundations according to capacity of foundation. They collect income and revenues of foundation. Article 22 of Foundations Law numbered 2762 has abolished the Cabi Service, but the said article has permitted to use clerk and collector with permission of General Directorate in big foundations.

      CÂMEKİYYE: It comes to mean salary, gift and atiyye given to servants and officers from income of foundation. It states on the one hand the salary and on the otherhand the gift and the goodness. Camekiyye means clothier in Persian and also it is used for gifts presented as cloth price.

      CÂRR: It means neighbour. Its plural is "cirân". According to İmam-ı Azam's thought, câr is a person whose house is next to creator of wagf's house. According to İmam-ı Muhammed and Yusuf, all persons who go to small mosque of quarter are neighbour one another.This conflict is based on manners and customs. Therefore "câr" and "cîrân" terms are commented pursuan to manners and customs in community.

      CERİB : It is a land length and width of which are sixty zirakares ( a unit of measure of Ottoman ) and in total 3,600 zira kares. Each zira as seven kabz and every kabz four fingers are considered. However this method changes according to manners and customs of some places. Cerib is accepted as a field of 10,000 zira kare by law dated 14 September 1285 as Julıian Calendar. Cerib in foundation certificate -charters issued prior to  14 Eylül 1285 corresponds to 3,600 zira kare and Cerib in foundation certificate -charters issued after this date corresponds to 10,000 zira kare A field of 10.000 zira' kare is called as hectare.

      CERRÂH: It is derived of Cerh root. He is a surgeon who treats the wound and if required operates. It is obvious why surgeon is said this doctor. Today surgeons are called as operator. We didn't require to explain about history of surgery as well as military and civil surgeons due to out of purpose.

      CİHET : It is a service type such as imamate, rhetoric, professorship, ministry and curatorshig belonging to voluntary associations. They are called as mevkufunaleyh and  meşrutunleh ( dedicated for him/her ) as well as called as cihet.  Cihet's plural is "cihât". There is two kinds of cihet, as asliyye and fer'iyye.

      CİHET-İ ASLİYYE: It is a service that constitutes main purpose of foundation. Services such as imamate, rhetoric and physician are basic services. These services are called as cihet-i zaruriyye ( obligatory service).

      CİHET-İ FER'İYYE: This service type is in second degree compared to purpose of foundation and is not necessary. To cite Buhari, Müslim, Şifa-i şerif  in a Cami-i şerifte in certain times is a nonessential service.

      CİHET-İ GAYR-İ MÜNKATİA : It is an endless service. Continuity in foundation is realized through such service / task . Foundations for which a service is not determined is deemed to be established to help to the poor. This is a continuous service as well.  In this way eternity in foundation realizes.

      CİHET-İ ZARURİYYE : (See. Cihet-i asliyye)

      CİHET-İ GAYR-İ ZARÛRİYYE (See. Cihet-i fer'iyye)

      CİSR : It means bridge. Kamus mütercimi ( Kamus interpreter) says that although author describes the arched stone bridge with cisr, but cisr is absolute in use even if it is stone and wood or flat and high.  Although endurance and height are valid in the meaning of kantara, it states a bridge which is stone arched and high. For example a bridge built on Tuna River can be said cisr, but kantara cannot be said. Zemahşerî decribes cisr as small bridge and describes kantara as big bridge. Bridge made of wood is called as cisr and bridge made of stone and tile is called as Kantara in Islamic law scholars' custom, thus it is explained in this way in Hidaye. Its plural is 'ecsur' and 'cüsur'.

      CÜZ'HÂNLIK: It means to read one part from Koran prior to and after prayers.   

      CÜZ'HÂNLIK VAZİFESİ (CÜZ'HÂNLIK TASK): It is service related to reading a part from Koran in mosques, small Islamic monasteries and Islamic monasteries. Atiyye given in return for reading a part from Koran is called as cüz'hânlık task.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Ç

      ÇİFTLİK (FARM): It consists of two parts. Fisrt part is called as farm legally and is cultivated ever year and is yielded. It means a pair of two cows. It consists of a land of seventy-eighty decare from good place and consists of a land of hundred decare from middle place and consists of a land of one hundred thirty decare from bad place. Second part includes animals and agricultural tools, plants and other outbuildings supplied for agriculture.

      ÇİLLE HÂNE : This term consists of two Persian words. It comes to mean a place where people patiently endures difficulties.  Suffering is a kind of spirituality riyazat ( giving up all worldly things )  way followed by sect members to improve their morals and to clean their conscience. It is used as çilehâne in our language. Folowres give up all worldly things until time finishes specified by their guides in çilehâne's. When time ends they leave Çilehane and go on invocation and worship depending on their guides's advice. These places sometimes become dark rooms of Islamim monastaries or sometimes a deserted cave in a deserted place.

      ÇUVALDIZ(PACKTHREAD) : Its wordbook meaning is known. It means water of two hilal (crescent ) amount as water measurement term. Crescent is in thickness of umbrella wire and one end of it is sharp and its other end is in the form of shovel. Tooth spaces and ear are cleaned by means of using of it. Measure that has two crescent thickness is called as çuvaldız.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      D

      DÂNİK: It is one sixth of a dirhem. Its plural is devâniktir.

      DÂRU'L-ACEZE: It comes to mean poorhouse. Organizations which shelter and feed helpless, old, ill and disabled persons who are powerless and does not fail to work and earn money are called as  charity institution.

      DÂRU'L-AKÂKİR: Akâkir is plural of akkârın. A plant used for healing or root of plant are called as Akkâr. Dâru'l-akâkir is a place where plants and their roots used in drugs are kept.

      DÂRU'L-HADÎS : They are madrasahs ( moslem theological school ) where is read hadith. Hadith Madrasah established in Sivas and Sultan Suleyman Islamic-Otoman Social Complex is particularly called as dâru'l-hadîs denir. Hadith comes to mean our esteemed prophet's words and deeds as well as his keeping silence although he sees anything. Hadith science is a very comprehensive science. Those who have proficiency and compotent in hadith science are called as Muhaddis.

      DÂRU'L-HARB: They are non-moslem countries where there is no peace and righteousness between Moslems and non-moslems.

      DÂRU'L-HİLÂFE: Istanbul was named as Dâru'l-hilâfe since it is capital of caliphate. This inscription is used on some money. Madrasahs of Istanbul are called as Darül-hilâfe madrasahs after Constitutional Monarchy. This expression is left after abolition of Caliphate.

      DÂRU'L-KURRÂ': It is a training center where hafızs learn recitation science. Dâru'l-kurrâ' was an education institution that was above of dâru'l-huffâz training center.

      DÂRU'L-KÜTÜB: Library.

      DÂRU'S-SAÂDE: Palace of Ottoman Sultans would be called as Dâru's-saâde. But in this meaning Saray-ı Hümâyûn term would be used usually.

      DÂRU'S-SAÂDE AĞALIĞI : Dâru's-saâde means sultan's palace. For honor it is called as Dâru's-saâde. Civil service posts such as Dâru's-Saâde Generosity, Senior Treasurer and Senior Storekeeper are established in the period of deceased Second Sultan Murad to fulfill Harem services. Dâru's-Saâde Generosity was the greatest of these Civil service posts, therefore also it would be called as Kızlar Ağası. To conduct Harem works was the most important task of Dâru's-Saâde Generosity. Additionaly Dâru's-Saâde Generosity would perform supervision affairs of Haremeyn, in other word Mecca-Medina foundations as well as its foundations and members. There are detailed information in work written under the name of Evkâfın Tarihçe-i Teşkilâtı ( Organization History of Foundations ) and in Mabeyn ( Sultan's Executive Assistant ) Chief Clerk Tahsin Pasha's work. Desirers may apply there for further information.

      DÂRU'S-SALTANA(T): It means Makarr-ı hükümet ( Seat of government ). Since Istanbul is seat of government, It would be named as Dâru's-saltanati'l-aliyye and Dâru's-saltanati's-seniyye.

      DÂRU'Ş-ŞİFÂ: Healing place, hospital.

      DEFTER-HÂNE: It means a formal institution that deals with possession works of real estates.

      DERVÎŞ (DERVISH): It means those who engage in worship for God's sake preferring the poverty and satisfaction and who belongs to turuk-ı aliyye ( a Islamic religious sect).

      DEVİR-HÂN: It states a person who reads Mülk Sura or another sura before midday prayers on Friday or specified any day according to creator of wagf's condition.  Since it is necessary to read by means of transfer and successive, it is called as devirhânlık. After read suras, mercy and salvation from God are entreated for foundations, usually believer and believers.

      DİNAR: It means a gold which is in valued at pure silver of ten dirhem-şer'î. Also golden coin that is weighted at a shekel is called as dinar.  Plural of dinar is denânîr.

      DİRHEM: Pursuant to a decree taken in the period of Sultan Orhan, dirhem-i Osmanî became one fourth of dirhem-i şer'î. Theoretically dinar is 1/400 of weight called as kıyye. Dirhem was divided into four parts. Each part was said denk (a weight unit corresponding to gold of 0,8775 gr in Ottoman ). By dividing into four parts of denk, each part of it was said kırat and by dividing into four parts of kırat, each part of it was said wheat and by dividing into four parts of wheat, each part of it was said fitil and by dividing into two parts of fitil, each part of it was named kıtmir and by dividing into two parts of kıtmir, each part of it was named zerre. One and a half dirhem was called as shekel and 44 oke ( 1 oke = 1283 gr ) was called as kantar and four kantars were called as çeki ( weight of 250 kilos). 

      DİRHEM-İ CEYYİD: It is a unalloyed ( unmixed ) dirhem ( silver money ). When a judgement is given in case that a person stole, reliable criterion is dirhem-i ceyyid. Alloyed ten dirhem silver is not accepted as reliable criterion in theft.

      DİRHEM-İ HÂLİS: It consists of pure silver and does not contain another metal.

      DİRHEM-İ KÂSİD: It is alloyed ( mixed ) coin that is valid when cut first and that is invalid afterwards.

      DİRHEM-İ MAĞŞÛŞ: It means dirhemcontaining another metal.

      DİRHEM-İ ÖRFÎ: It is sixteen kırat. According to some persons dirhem-i örfî of every city or town is effective in blood money and other matters. But this dirhem must not be deficit from dirhem-i şer'î. If it is deficit dirhem-i şer'î is valid.

      DİRHEM-İ RÂYİC:It means dirhemwhichis interchanged colloquially irrespective of its carat, either ceyyid ( full ) or Züyuf ( low). 

      DİRHEM-İ ŞER'Î: It consists of fourteen kırat. This dirhem is effective at alms, dowry, blood money, judgement regarding theft ( nisab-I sirkat ). There were three type dirhems weight at 20, 12 and 10 kırat in the period of our prophet Esteemed Muhammed and they are combined in the period of Caliphate Omar and thus 14 kırat is accepted as a dirhem, which is mid of three. According to another rumor there were four kinds of dirhem in the period of our prophet Esteemed Muhammed.

      DİRHEM-İ ŞER'Î: It consists of fourteen carats.

      1 - Dirhem-i bağali is 8 dâniks.

      2 - Dirhem-i taberi is 4 dâniks.

      3 - Dirhem-i mağribî is3 dâniks.

      4 - Dirhem-i yemenî is 1 dânik.

      Caliphate Omar has combined dirhem-i bağali and dirhem-i taberi which are the most effective dirhems  and  he has accepted as one dirhem 6 daniks.

      DİRHEM-İ ZUYÛF: It is a dirhem losing the characterics of ceyyid, as it is mixed with copper and other metal,

      DİYANÎ VAKIF: Foundations established only for worship. As mosque and small mosque foundations.

      DÖNÜM: It is a land of 1600 arşın ( Turkish yard ) whose width and length are 40 feet ( in other words square ) with average foot.

      DUÂ: Anything is to wish from God by praising.   It is called as malediction to desire evil and trouble.

      DUÂ-GÛ: A person who prays in private meetings such as marriage and in general meetings such as mawlid, khatm and hafız communities was called Duâ-gû.

      DUÂ-GÛ TASK: It comes to mean salaries and wages of those who say pray. (See task)

      DUÂ-HÂN: A person who prays in Islamic monastaries at the end of ritual and invocation.  Although Duâ-gû has this meaning, it is usually used for a person who prays at the end of private and general meetings.

      DÜNYA: It is the opposite of afterlife and means this world.In fact it is feminine of edna word.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      E

      EBEVEYN: is dual of eb. It comes to mean parents. "Li-ebeveyn kardeş" means blood brother and sister based on tağlib. Tağlib is to use a wording in the form of including other sense due to a relation. In this context eb forms a basis firstly and therefore this word is expressed as parents by dual siga by including mother metaphorically.

      EBNÂİYYE FOUNDATION : A foundation whose tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates and income of foundation are conditional to "ebnâ ve ebnâ-i ebnâ". According to words related by İmam-ı Azam daughter does not include in ebnâ. Acccording to another judicial opinion ebnâ includes son and daughter, but son does not include in foundation which is conditional to benât and benatü'l-benât. This conflict may arise from difference in usage of manners and customs and ebna word in those periods.

      ECEL: One's dying hour which is ordained by God for human's life from past eternity. According to some people it is life time and end of life.

      EHL-İ AFÂF: It means a person who complies with God's orders. (See. Sâlih)

      EHL-İ HAYR: It means chaste, virtuous  and righteousness.

      EHL-İ KIBLE: It comes to mean Moslems who turn toward Kaaba.

      EHL-İ KİTAB: Jewishes and Christians who believe in heavenly books, in other words,  believe books such as Old Testament, Psalm and New Testament sent by God through inspiration are called as Ehl-i Kitap. Although these holy books are falsified since their religionists believe in Godhead unconditionally they are considered differently compared to polytheists and they are emancipated in their worships.

      EHL-İ SALÂH: It means a person who is straightforward and avoids from performing of deeds prohibited by religion. Also those who have such properties are called as ehl-i afâf and ehl-i fazl.

      EHL-İ VEZÂİF: It comes to mean those who deserve to salary and ration from income of the foundation.

      EİZZE FOUNDATION: Eizze is plural of azîz (saint); Ir means worshiper, devotee and miracle worker. Eizze foundations are Abdülkâdir Geylani, Mevlana and Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli foundations that were conducted by special trustees without being intervention of Foundation Administarion and they were named as exclusive foundations. Abdülkâdir Geylani Foundation was located in Baghdad and Musul and Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rûmî Foundation was located in Konya and Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli Foundation was located in Ankara and Kırşehir and Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Foundation was located in between Ankara and Konya. (See Exclusive Foundations )

      EKBER: It a adjective derived from Kiber root. It means great and sublimity. Great and sublimity may be both material and spiritual. While seniority bears material meaning and greatness bears spiritual meaning. There are some conditions in foundation certificate - charters as '' seniority child will be trustee '', it means that '' grand child will be trustee''. Child who borns earlier is called as grandchild. Accordingly in case of twining, child who borns earlier is considered eldest. Because time is valid in eldest, but is not day, month and year.

      EKBER-İ EVLÂD: It comes to eldest of children. Foundation's tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) in many foundation certificate - charters is stipulated to ekber and erşed-i evlad. Tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) of such foundations is conferred into eldest of children. If eldest children born geminally, child who borns earlier is called as grandchild.

      EKERE: It is plural of Ekkâr. Ekkar means farmer. According to discretion it is plural of âker. Âker means a person who grubes and ploughes. It is derived from ekr root meaning grubbing.

      EL-AHVECÜ FE'L-AHVEC: Ahvec means more needy-indigent person. For example if creator a waqf stipulates a provison in such a way that '' my foundation's income will be given to el-ahvec fel-ahvec ", income will be given more needy-indigent person. According to some peoples' opinion income is firstly distributed to more needy-indigent person until possessing of alms portion and remaing portion is distributed as per state of need in this direction.

      EL-AKREBU FE'L-AKREB: Akreb is next-of-kin. Accordingly this combination means next-of-kin and afterward is next-of-kin. For example if creator a waqf says that he/she dedicated his/her foundation's income to collateral kinsmen, it will be distributed as el-akrebü fe'l-akreb ",  income is distributed to relatives in the closest generation. But if creator a waqf says that '' el-akrebü fe'l-akreb will be given to poor persons who are my near relatives, income is distributed to relatives in the nearest generation until possessing of alms portion and afterwards income is distributed to generation following this generation until income will be consumed and afterwards it is distributed to generation following this generation as written.

      ELFÂZ-İ VÂKIF: Creator a waqf's words expressing his/her desires regarding foundation.

      EMÂNETEN İDARE: Foundation is conducted by General Directorate of Foundations until grant will be performed in foundations where there is tevliyetin meşrutunleh.  

      EMÎN-İ MAHZEN: It means a person who is appointed to keep supplies, commodities and drugs in storehouse.

      EMÎN-İ SARF: It means a person who is appointed to use and distribute supplies and commodities from storehouse in accordance with orders of administration.

      ENDERÛN: It means internal. Two organizations were establishes under title of  Enderûn-Bîrûn ( internal-external ) in Fatih's period. Enderûn was title of palace institution and bîrûn was title of general state organization such as officer and army. Enderûn was established based on school method as three classrooms under the name of small, big and ''has'' rooms and it had an excellent curriculum and solid management. Classrooms had degrees. Those who proved their competiencies were promoted from a degree to another degree.

      ERÂMİL: It is plural of Ermile. (See ermile).

      ERHÂM-ENSÂB: Karâbet means relationship and kinship. Âl, cins, ehl-i beyt, erham and ensab come to same meaning.

      ERMİLE: It comes to mean a woman who reaches in womanhood and separates from her husband due to death or divorcement. Its plural is erâmil.

      EŞKİNCİ: It means to dig up, run and reach rapidly. Therefore eşkinci would be said to cavalryman corps going to war.

      EVKÂF-İ CELÂLİYYE: They were foundations allowed for interests and needs of Mevlevî sect and also they were exclusive foundations. (see exclusive foundations)

      EVKÂF-I HÜMÂYÛN: They are Sultan's and his relatives and are conducted by Foundations Adminisration. (see Evkaf-ı Mazbuta)

      EVKÂF-İ MAZBÛTA: They are foundations conducted by Foundations Adminisration directly. According to old procedure it is separated three parts:

      1- Foundations of past sultans and their relatives.

      2-Foundatios which are administered by Foundation Administration as münkarız their meşrutunlehleri from offspring and müteallikat-ı vâkıf.

      3-Although their tevliyet becomes under responsibility of meşrutunlehl, foundation administered by Foundation Administration by giving a salary for their trustees.

      They are

      a-) Foundations registered prior to this law,

      b-) Foundations whose management is registered prior to this law,

      c-) Foundations whose trusteeship is stipulated to a certain authority,

      ç) Foundations which does not have any charity services any longer legally and actually.

      d) Foundations whose trusteeship is stipulated to other persons other than accessories of founders

      And they are established before 4 June 1926.

      EVKÂF-I MÜLHÂKA: It comes to mean foundations that are conducted by means of trustees under supervision and controlling of Foundations Administrations. They are;

      a-) Foundations whose trusteeship is stipulated to accessories of founders

      b-) Foundations that are conducted by communities,

      c) Foundations that are special to craftsman,

      and they are established before 4 June 1926 as per law numbered 35513 dated 28 June 1938.

     EVKÂF-I SAHÎHA: It means good foundations. ( see Vakf-ı Sahih)

     EVLAD ( CHILDREN) : It is plural of child and means children. Child and child of child expression are often happened in ageless foundations.  If child word is mentioned once, son and daughter are understood. It does not include descendants, in other words children of child unless there is presumption. But if presumption is available, it includes descendants. For example if founder stipulates to give his / her foundation's income to his /her child in foundation certificate-charter, child wording includes child, descendants and their accessories due to presumption called as from generation to generation . ''Evlad ve evlad-ı evlad" means " children and children of children. This term includes children both daughter and son in all generations. For example creator of a waqf stipulates to give his / her foundation's income to his /her child and child of child, income of foundation is given to creator of a waqf's child in first, second and third generation provided that there is presumption called as from generation to generation. (see Batnen Ba'de Batnin) (Müretteb Vakf.)

      EVLAD-I BUTÛN: Someone's daughters' sons and daughters.

      EVLAD-I SULBİYE: Someone's real childrens. Grandchildren are not called as evlad-ı sulbiye.

      EVLADİYE VAKIF: It is a foundation stipulated to child and child of child.

      EVLAD-I ZUHÛR: A man's sons and daughters and sons and daughters of his sons are evlad-ı zuhur. It is opposite of Evlad-ı butûn.

      EVLAD-I ZUKÛR: It comes to mean sons of sons and daughters. Because it is masculine adjective. If we wish to state in Turkish ''evlad-ı evlad-ı zükûr'' expression, we say sons of children and it tells us sons of sons and daughters. Evlad-ı evlad-ı evlad-ı zükûr means sons of sons and daughters of sons and daughters.

      EYYİM: It means a woman who does not have a husband.

      EYTÂM: It is plural of yetim. Either girl or boy yetim means a child dying his/her father.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      F

      FAKİH: It means a person who deservedly has a grasp of Islamic law and is competent to explain and comment religious rules. He has skill and capacity to know rules being pro and con and he is named as interpreter of islamic law. Its plural is fukahâ. But accessories are deemed rich due to their father and grandfather's richness and eldests are deemed rich due to their accessories' richness and wife is deemed rich due to her husband's richness. Because their alimonies belong to inherent and accessories and wife's alimony belongs to her husband. Accordingly such persons are not given anything from foundation's income in foundations established for poors.

      FAKİR (POOR ): It comes to mean a person who is not obligatory for him/her to give alms because he/she does not have adequately estates to give alms.  Its plural is fukara (poor persons). It means a person who cannot meet his/her vital needs such as housing, clothing and furniture and does not have food and drink of six months, 200 dirhem silver and asset corresponding to this amount. This meaning must be understood from poor and poor persons expression taking place in foundation certificate - charter.

      FEDDAN: As per custom of Egyptions Mısırlılar, feddan consists of  a land of four hundred towns.  Each town is six Turkish yard and two third Turkish yard (6.66) and each Turkish yard is six kabzas.

      FERÂĞ (ALIENATION ): Leaving and assigning of someone's right of disposition on  musakkafat ve müstegallat-ı mevkûfe to another person come to mean ferağ I(alienation) in foundation term. Person who waives from his / her this right is called as fariğ (Assignor ), person to whom assignor assigns the said right is called as assignee ( mefruğunleh) and coin which is taken from assignee by assignor in return for mefruğunbih ( thing which is subject of assignation ) anf tefviz ( see tefviz ) with waived Müsakkaf and Müstegallat is named as bedel-i ferâğ ( alienation price) (see  Müsakkafat, Müstegallat).

      FERÂĞ ANİ'L-CİHÂT: If someone waives from a right under his /her responsibility and assigns it to another person, this is called as ferâğ ani'l-cihât.

      FERAĞ Bİ'L-İSTİĞLÂL: It means ferâğ bi'l-vefa occurring provided that fariğ (Assignor ) hires  mefruğunbih ( thing which is subject of assignation ) from assignee ( mefruğunleh).

      FERÂĞ Bİ'L-VEFÂ: Assigning of a person to creditor a place of foundation under his / her disposition against money borrowed by him/her provided that money borrowed by him/her is returned to him / her when he /she paid debt is called as ferâğ bi'l-vefâ.

      FERÂĞ-I KAT'Î: Unconditional alienation is called as ferâğ-i kat'î.

      FERMÂN: is Sultan's written order and decree bearing Sultan's signature on it and becoming some marks under it.    Ferman takes various names as per content. For example charter, special charter, guidance, allocation and assignment ferman etc. All fermans issued regarding various disputes and subjects are registered in Prime Minister Archive. If required, copies may be received from there. As Fermans are above any suspicions and lies, transactions are performed by their concent in courts and offices.

      FERRÂŞ: It means a person who is responsible for carrying out cleaning services and furnishing of institutions such as imaret (poorhouse), mosque and small mosque.

      FERSAH: It is measure unit corresponding to three miles, in the other words 7500 Turkish Yard.

      FETVÂ EMÎNİ: It comes to mean a person who prepares answers for fatwas and questions asked on behalf of Şeyhu'l-islam ( a person who is erudite and the most authorized in Islamic matters ) and who presents them to sign Şeyhu'l-islam. He is also responsible for replying questions asked by petitions and examining writs issued by abolished religious courts. There were government employees in company with him such as Deputy Fatwa Director, Publication Director and Examinre and Chief Müsevvid ( a official who arranges drafts).

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      G

      GABN: It comes to mean to cheat in some procedures such as purchasing and selling which are onerous legal transaction.

      GABN-I FAHİŞ: Gabn means deception and consists of two parts. One of them is gabn-i fahiş and other is gabn-i yesir. Gabn-i fahiş comes to mean deception as half of one tenth or more in goods such as cloth and commodity (Urûz) and one tenth or more in animals and one fifth or more in income. Urûz also contains weighted and measured goodas.  Other is gabn-i yesir that comes to mean deception less than abovementioned amount. For example if a real estate of hundred liras is received by eighty five liras, this type of deception is called as gabn-i yesir. Because deceived amount is under one fifth of hundred.

      GALLE: It comes to mean crop and benefit ( revenue). In foundation term, it means foundation's income gained from movables and real estates.

      GALLE-İ ATİYE: It is a foundation term and is used as same of galle-i hâdise. It is opposite of Galle-i me'huze (See Galle-i Hâdise and Galle-i Me'huze)

      GALLE-İ HÂDİSE: It comes to mean galle and income that are not taken yet by meşrutunleh after acceptance and acknowledgement of foundation and before rejection to meşrutunleh (A person or institution stipulated to use for interest of foundation) and It is opposite of galle-i me'huze. In event that rejection is not effective on taken galle, it is valid about galle-i hâdise. Because meşrutunlehi has only right to acceptance, but is not ownership, on this galle he did not take it yet. Afterward this right is extinguished by rejection. Also acceptance right is not like ownership right and extinguishing the acceptance right is possible.

      GALLE-İ MÂZİYE: It means incomes and crops which occurs before meşrutunleh's acceptance and are distributed to other mevkufunaleyh in case that meşrutünleh rejects creator of a waqf' condition at first and afterwards he accepts it. Accordingly meşrutunleh who accepts the condition does have not right to demand and take back it. Because acceptance after rejection is not valid for galle-i mâziye although it is valid for galle-i hâdise, in the other words, galle-i âtiye.

      GALLE-İ ME'HÛZE: It comes to mean galle taken by meşrutunleh due to acceptance creator of a waqf'ın condition after establishment of foundation. If meşrutunleh rejects the said condition afterwards, incomes collected by him cannot be received back because of rejection. Because after it is determined that a person has an ownership right on a property, the said property does not abolish due to its rejection.

      GALLE-İ VAKIF: It comes to mean crops and incomes of foundation. It includes natural and legal results and benefits. Interest of foundation's money, leasing of foundation's real estate and fruits of foundation's gardens are considered as galle. 

      GANİ: It comes to mean a person who has required good and money to give alms. People may be separated in different class' in terms of richness. They may be summarized as three class';Rich, fakir, poor. Rich is a person who has money (Nisab-ı zekat) required to give alms other than necessary needs. Nisab-ı zekat is good consisting of 200 dirhem silvers or more amount other than necessary needs. According to an opinion necessary needs consist of requirement materials such as house, food, clothing and servant and according to another opinion they consist of requirement needs of a month or six months. If someone does not have anything other than necessary requirements, he/she is considered as fakir. Fakir may be given share of foundation (meşrut vakıf ) from which makes use of fukara as well as he/she may be given alms. But if someone's house, cloth and other commodities are over efficiency degree and this excess amounts to 200 dirhem silvers, the said person is considered as rich. Alms, charity and anything from foundation (meşrut vakıf ) from which makes use of fukara are never given to this person.  (See Fakir, Miskin.)

      GARAZ-I VÂKIF: It means purpose of founder. Expressions in foundation certificate-charters are always interpreted in accordance with purpose of the creator of a wagf. For example creator of a wagf says that '' surpluss income of his / her foundation should be given to his / her son and daughter and child of his / her child according to science of islamic inheritance, due to presumption concerning son and daughter wording it is understood from science of islamic inheritance '' expression that income surplus should be given as two shares and one share respectively for his / her son and daughter.  In addition if one of expressions in foundation certificate - charter specifies that income surplus will given to son and if another expression in foundation certificate - charter specifies that income surplus will given both son and daughter, then share will be given to daughter because purpose is to help.

      GARİB: It is derived of ' Gurbet '' root. Gurbet means living far from one' s home or homeland. Someone who lives far from one' s home or homeland is named as garib. Its plural is gureba. It is required to comment garib and gureba terms taking place in foundations certificate - charters according to manners and customs. In our customs someone who goes from a country to country for a short time is not called as garib. If place where someone goes is as far as müddet-i sefer (  three-day distance), he/she is named as müsafir ( see Müddet-i Sefer).

      GÂZİ: It comes to mean a warrior who fights with enemy for the sake of his/her religious and country.

      GEDİK: It means to do business and perform art authority. Also all equipments put inside a real estate for trade and art are called as gedik. As long as rent determined by consent of owner in real estate income is paid and as long as rent determined by consent of trustee in vakıf akar ( a real estate providing income ) is paid in return for remaining of gedik in the other words all equipments, gedik's possessor has right to decide about that place and he cannot be taking out of here and at first agreed rent of the said place cannot be increased.

      GEDİĞİN MUACCELESİ: In the event of tefviz of gedik to pretender, it is a prepaid price that price of real estate where takes place gedik is specified close to its value free and clear of gedik

      GEDİĞİN MUECCELESİ: In return forexisting of all equipments, it is a rent price paid for place where is available all equipments from month to month and from year and year to owner of real estate.

      GEDİKÂT-İ MEVKÛFE: Some gediks are dedicated provided that they have continuation right for all equipments considered as gedik. They are named as gedikat-ı mevkûfe.

      GEDİK MUTASARRIFI: It is a person who is owner of all equipments on the premises, in the other words he/she is a lease holder in that place.

      GEDİK MÜLKÜ: It means akar where gedik takes place. This akar, either real estate or foundation, becomes property of gedik for this place.

      GEDİK MÜLKÜNÜN KİRASI: It consists of little rent price paid by Gedik possessor to owner of real estate where gedik takes place. 

      GEDİK MÜLKÜNÜN SAHİBİ: It means a real person or legal entity who/which have bare ownership (Rakabe ) and entity of real estate where is available all equipments.  

      GİRDÂR: It comes to mean things such as a tree or building established by land lease holder of foundation. For example house and trees are girder in foundation lands which are mukataalı ( see mukataa).  Accordingly if vacant land where agricultural is not possible is brought and hilled soil and in this way the said vacant land is made suitable for agriculture and planting tree, this hilled soil is called as girdar.

      GÖVERİ: It comes to meanIslamic tithe of crops, in the other words fruit and vegetable in old term. It may be thought that göveri is derived of güvare word that is Persian but it is likely to constitute from gövermek infinitive. 

      GUZÂT VAKFI: It comes to mean foundation belomging to war veterans. These are Gazi Mihal, Gazi Evranos, Gazi Ali Bey, Gazi Süleyman Bey foundations. Gazi Mihal Bey Foundation was in Filibe, Gazi Evranos Bey Foundation was in Selanik and Gümilcine, Gazi Ali Bey Foundation was in Edirne, Gazi Süleyman Bey Foundation was in Filibe. Most of them are ridden.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      H

      HABBÂZ: It is derived from "Hubz" root. Hubz and habbâz come to mean '' bread '' and '' bread maker '' in Arabic. This expression is used in foundations such as poorhouses and hospitals and it means a person who cooks and prepares of institution's bread.

      HÂCEGÂN: It comes to mean those who conduct editorial office and perform duties such as revenue office and marksmanship in state departments. Clerks of Divan-ı Hümayun would be called as (hâcegân-ı divân-ı hümâyûn). Hâcegân term would be used in some islam states prior to Ottomans.

      HADEME-İ HAYRAT: It means those who work in charity institutions.

      HADEME-İ MERDÂ: It means nurses serving to patients in hospitals. There are advices and orders about how they will serve in foundations such as in Dârü'ş-şifâ, hospital and mental hospital.

      HADEME-İ VAKIF : It comes to mean those working in foundation' activities. For example Imam, preacher, muezzin, trustee, teacher, professor etc.

      HAFFÂR: It is derived from "Hafr" root. Hafr means to dig. A person digging a grave in cemetaries is called as haffâr. This duty is a service in some foundations.

      HÂFIZ-I KÜTÜB: It means a person who is appointed to keep books in libraries. This person must be known books with their curriculum and he or his assistants deliver a book to person who requests it to read. 

      HALİFE ( CHALIPH): It comes to mean head of the state reigning in accordance with Islamic rules. Its plural is "hulefâ".

      HALİFE-İ MEKTEB: Qualified workman. It means a school negotiant who negotiates lessons of students and repeats some subjects which students could not understand in schools. 

      HÂNUT: It means bar room. It is also used in the sense of shop. Hanut comes to mean shop written in foundation certificate-charters. Its plural is "havânît".

      HARAMEYN : It is dual of Harem. Harem are holy places in Mekke-i Mükerreme and Medine-i Münevvere. I means Haremeyn Mekke-i Mükerreme and Medine-i Münevvere demektir. HAREMEYN FOUNDATION: It comes to mean foundation that their revenues are given partly or wholly to poor persons of haremeyn ( Mecca and Madinah ) after  meşrutunleh's offspring ends.

      HAREMEYN EVKÂFI MÜFETTİŞLİĞİ (INSPECTORSHIP): It is a religious duty established in Moharrem month of 995 ( Mohammedan calendar ) to deal with certain matters belonging to Evkâf-ı Hümayun and Haremeyn Evkaf and their affiliates.

      HAREMEYN EVKÂFI MUHASEBECİLİĞİ( ACCOUNTANCY): It was a duty keeping books of foundations under the survey of Dâru's-saâde Ağas and registering services written in foundation certificate charters.

      HAREMEYN EVKÂFI MUKÂTAACILIĞI: It was a duty registering, transferring and assigning of musteğallat-ı mevkufe relating with mukataa ( a finance means in state spending) under the survey of Dâru's-saâde Ağas and collecting its charge and revenue. 

      HÂRİS-İ BEDESTEN: It means guardian of shopping center and covered Turkish bazaar.

      HATÎB: It comes to mean a person who performs sermon for community in Friday and Bairam salats.

      HAVÂŞİ: It means Amûdü'n-neseb, in the other words a relative who is not principal and accessor. Father and his son are amidü'n-nesep. Brothers and sisters, uncles and aunts are not amidu'n-neseb, but are havâşi.

      HAVÂİ GEDİK: It comes to mean an authority to make trade and to perform a craft everwhere in period when trade and craft are under monopoly. Gediks in İstanbul and Bilad-ı selase ( Common name of Galata, Üsküdar and Eyüp Counties )  were abolished by law dated 16 February 1328 ( Julian calendar ). Since havai gediks became invalid and accordingly monopoly was abolished by law dated Zilhicce 1277 ( Mohammedan calendar ), havai gedik is not metioned in law dated 16 February 1328 ( Julian calendar ).

      HAYRAT: It is plural of ' Hayre '. It means works established and dedicated for mercy's sake and in the public interest in our language. For example mosque, small mosque, school, library and boiler for guest house and coffin for funeral etc. It is opposite of akar. Akar are real estates dedicated to obtain revenue with purpose of continuity of foundation'd target. '' Hayrat '' term in Article 8 of Foundations Law and 'Akar '' term in Article 11 of same law have this meaning. '' Hayır  (charity ) '' word consisting of root of hayrat word comes to mean desire and inclination in dictionary.

      HÜCCET: It comes to mean evidence in dictionary. While in early days documents issued by judge related to a legal case would be called as hüccet, afterwards documents about events which don't contain any provisons such as acceptance of a decree before judge, appointment of curator and giving permission regarding a matter are called as Hüccet. Judge's seal take places on document in Hücctes and it take places under verdicts.

      HUKR: It comes to mean to have right of disposition over a foundation land in return for a price.

      HULÜV: It comes to mean menfaat-i mücerrede on an akar. Menfaat-i mücerrede which is determined by icare ( see icare ) and icareteyn ( see icareteyn ) is hulüv. Also ayan-ı muttasıla who benefits from this menfaat-i mücerrede is named as hulüv. In this sense hulüv does not grant any right to its holder. For example a person who rents a foundation shop cannot assert a claim in form of '' I rent again '' after ending of time. Hulüv is not convenient for our language.

     Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      İ

      İBARE-İ VAKIFTA (ALÂ FERÎZATİ'Ş-ŞER'İYYE): "Alâ ferîzatiş-şer'iyye" expression is used in the meaning of '' giving two shares for son and giving one share for daughter'' according to manners and customs. It does not mean appliying of religious inheritance rules in every subject. If a meşrutünleh has a son and daughter in foundation containing this expression, income  are distributed by means of giving two shares for son and giving one share for daughter. But afterwards interest of foundation kinds to brother of the same mother and brother of the same father other than child, galle (income ) is divided into based on equity principle; or one sixth does not given brother of the same mother and remaining amount does not given brother of the same father.

      İBARE-İ VAKIFTA MÜFESSER LAFIZ: Müfesser means a wording wilfull misinterpretation of which is not possible and someone is obligatory to obey it by performing his/her religious duties. For example if creator of a waqf says in his/her foundation certificate-charter that ''  income surplus will be allowed to child and my descendants, in the other words to child of my child, and afterwards it will be used for requirements of mosque'',  child of descendants cannot be claimed an allowance since descendants is interpreted as child of child. 

      İBÂRE-İ VAKIFTA MÜCMEL LAFIZ :  : Mücmel is a word that has an ambivalence in itself meaning.  As long as person telling mücmel does not explain what his/her purpose is, purpose cannot be understood. "İbham" (uncertain, inexplicit ), a person saying a word leaves inexplicit his / her purpose by meaning a different  sense other than dictionary meaning of that word or purpose of the said word cannot be understood due to garabet ( to use words whose meaning is not known by everybody) in dictionary meaning or that word has several meanings, therefore which meaning is meant cannot be understood exactly. For example if creator of a wagf is stipulated to give income surplus of his/her foundation to Ahmed's child, his/her deceased son and if he/she has two sons named Ahmed, It cannot determined that which Ahmed's son is meşrutunleh (A person or institution stipulated to use for interest of foundation ). In this case creator of waqf' s statement is applied, if alive. If the deceased, condition is ignored as in common wording.

      İBÂRE-İ VAKIFTA MUHTEMEL LAFIZ:  : Muhtemel lafız ( possible wording ) may be referred two or more meanings and which wording is meant from these meanings is understood by presumption. For example if creator of waqf says in his/her foundation certificate-charter that '' my brother's /sister's child will do higher education from my foundation's income '' and he/she has several brothers / sisters and they have at education age children, to decide about which son of brother/sister are referred requires presumption. If one of brothers/sisters is poor and other is rich, it is understood that purpose is poor brother/sister.

      İBÂRE-İ VAKIFTA LAFZ-I MÜŞTEREK:  Common wording is a wording that has several meanings by several expressions. As mücmel wording, what is meant meaning from common wording is determined by creator of waqf. If he/she is deceased it is ignored and condition is not applied.

      İBÂRE-İ VAKIFTA ZÂHİR LAFIZ : Apparent wording is word that listener understands its meaning immediately without thinking and someone is obligatory to obey it by performing his/her religious duties. For example creator of a waqf says in his/her foundation certificate - charter that '' brother of same father will be trustee to my foundation after I died '', after death brother of same hather becomes trustee and tevliyet ( management duty regarding foundation's estates) dose not conferred into blood brother.

      İBN: It means son.

      İBNİ'S-SEBÎL: It means a person who travels to a distance place. Its plural is ebnâ-yı sebîl.

      İBTİDÂ-İ DÂHİL: See İbtidâ-i hâric.

      İBTİDA-İ HÂRİÇ: Formerly it was first degree in Ottoman madrasah organization. Those who wish to continue their education after learning a'mal-i erbaa (four operations ), writing and Koran in Sıbyan school ( schools giving education to children in 5-6 - year - old) would study on mukaddimat-ı ulûm ( primary education in any subject ) in madrasahs called as ibtidâ-i hâriç ( first section of madrasah). Afterwards when acquiring right to attend to ibtidâ-i dâhil ( second section of madrasah) they would enter into ibtidâ-i dâhil ( second section of madrasah) and then would enter into mûsileles giving higher education and Sahn Madrasahs. Sciences such as literature, history, geography, natural history, medical and  mathematics as well as Islamic sciences would be teached in Sahn Madrasahs. Scientists would always grow in these madrasahs and enderun ( a school where persons would be trained to be top manager in Ottoman Empire ). Canonists, scholars, philosophers, engineers and doctors with whom we have always taken proud received education in these madrasahs and other madrasahs located in cities such as Bursa and İznik.

      İCÂR: It comes to mean to rent müsakkafat and müstegallat in return for a price.

      İCÂRE:    It comes to mean to alienate a certain interest in return for a certain allowance in Islamic law.

      İCÂB-I VAKIF: It comes to mean a word that states to build an foundation according to local manners and customs. Foundation comes into existence as per word indicating the purpose. Foundation does not come into existence with abstract intention without wording. For example if someone purchases a real estate with intent to dedicate, that foundation is not considered as dedicated upon abstract intent.

      İCÂRETEYN: It means a price to be given in advance and a price to be given from year to year. See İcâreteynli Vakıf.

      İCÂRE-İ MUACCELE: Icare means price and icare-i muaccele means prepaid price. Price received in advance is called as icare-i muaccele and price received from month to month or from year to year is named as icare-i müeccele as being in İcare-i adiye (in ordinary rent) in mukataalı ( see mukatta ) foundations as well as icareteynli foundations ( see icareteynli vakıflar).

      İCÂRE-İ MÜECCELE: It is used as a term in Arz-ı mîrî ( a real estate whose bare ownership belongs to state and whose right of disposition belongs to a person ) and in places of icareteynli and  mukataalı vakıfs. They are prices received in annually with revenue share such as öşür ( one tenth) and humus ( one fifth) in Arz-ı mîrî benefited by means of cultivating and they are prices received in annually under (icâre-i zemin) and  bedel-i öşr (mukataa) names for uncultivated Arz-ı mîrî  and they are prices received in annually under (mukataa)  and (icâre-i zemin) names in icareteynli foundations and mukataalı foundations. Since they collect at the end of year at time of harvest in mir-i arazi belonging to foundations, they are called as müeccele.

      İCÂRE-İ TAVÎLE: It comes to mean to rent real estate  of an İcare-i vâhideli foundation with time more than three years or continuously due to one of certain reasons. This may be a certain time  or may be a finite time as being mukataa.

      İCÂRE-İ ZEMÎN: It means mukataa. Since there are buildings and trees on it, it is called as icare-i zemin (place price).

      İCÂRE-İ VÂHİDELİ EVKÂF: They are real estates of a foundation that are let on hire by trustees and authorities for a certain time and a short term. Its opposite is icareteynli foundations.

      İCÂRE-İ VÂHİDELİ AKÂRÂT-I MEVKÛFE: It means a real estate which is permanently let on hire by its trustee or person performing tevliyet duty to demanders together with adequate price in the scope of time such as month and year.  If there is not a condition about rent time of icare-i vahideli real estate  in foundation certificate charter and if foundation to be rented is farm and land, they cannot be let on hire for a period more than one year. In event that there is an interest for foundation in renting of foundation with a period more than abovementioned periods, letting on hire of real estate becomes possible with a period more than abovementioned periods by means of judge or authorized person.

      İCÂRETEYNLİ EVKÂF: It comes to mean müsakkafat and müstegallat-ı mevkûfe which are let on hire in return for a small fee paid in advance and from year to year according to requirement. This renting transaction is not subject to a time and in case that leaseholder dies, leased property is transferred from tenant to his/her successors having right to transfer in accordance with law and afterwards in the event that they die leased property transfers his/her successors having right to transfer. Icareteyn proceeding is abolished by Foundation Laws numbered 2762 and their possession is transferred to its owners in return for a müeccel fee of twenty years.

      İDÂRESİ MAZBÛT EVKÂF: It is a kind of mazbut foundations (A foundation type governed by state). It comes to mean foundations whose tevliyet are under meşrutünleh's responsibility and for which is forbidden to intervene foundation works since their trustees paid a salary and which are governed directly by Foundations Administration. For example Köprülü and Cağalzâdeler and Şehid Mehmed Paşa Fopundations etc.

      İDHÂL VE İHRÂC ŞARTI: It is a condition that creator of a waqf has right to stipulate new conditions when establishing foundation when he/she wishes or creator of a waqf has right to cancel some conditions from his /her existing foundation.

      İDRÂR: It means salary and allowance. Its plural is idrârât. Idrâr has several meanings, for example it also comes to mean to give and flow sheep milk as required. Therefore salary and allowance are called as İdrâr. Idrârât term is coincided in very old documents. Afterwards use of this term is left due to misunderstanding.

      İHKÂR: It comes to mean to lease a place to construct a building and plant a tree provided that a certain price is paid and perpetuity. This transaction is current in foundations.

      İKTÂ': Rakabe (possession of a property ) and interest of land belonging to treasury are assigned by authorized persons to a person who has right on treasury. Rakabe (possession of a property ) of land belonging to treasury or its mîrî interests ( state's interests ) are assigned as well as  those who takes allowance from treasury may be given enough money as monthly and annually from treasury. Its plural is named as iktâât.

      İKTÂÂT-I MEVKÛFE: In case that a person who has allowance from treasury is given right of disposition on mîrî arazi or allocated mîrî gelirler ( incomes belonging to state ) such as a'şar and duty by authorities, it is a dedicated land by the said person for a certain purpose. Most of Mülknâmes ( see mülkname ) and foundation established based on these Mülknâmes are this kind foundations. 

      İMAM: A person who is performed salaat to people. Its plural is eimme.

      İMÂM-I A'ZAM: One of four great interpreter of Islamic law whose judicial opinions are accepted by Sunnism.  His name is Nu'man and his father's name is Sâbit. He born in Kufe in 80 ( Islamic calendar ). Those who perform their religious duties in accordance with Great İmam's judicial opinions are called as Hanefi ( a sect in Islam). Most of existing Muslims are Hanefi. According to İmam-ı Azam foundation is not necessary and he gives an opinion that creator's of a waqf successors could revoke from foundation if he dies. Therefore his judicial opinions are mentioned in foundation certificate-charters ( Footnote: Detailed information is given about this subject in our work named Foundations). İmam-ı A'zam have had an extraordinary intelligence and high characteristics such as ittika ( to avoid from sins and malice), kindness and benefactor. He was an inestimable person. He has works related to hadith and Islamic law.  He deceased in 150 (Islamic calendar ). A large number books are written about his virtues and merits in Arabic, Persian and Turkish. He is buried and his tomb is a visiting place.

      İMAM-I MUHAMMED: He is a work comrade of esteemed İmam-ı A'zam. His name is Muhammed and his father's name is Hasan. He born in Vasıt in 130 (Islamic calendar ). According to his judicial opinion, a foundation will be valid by means of submitting to trustee and afterwards revocation from foundation cannot be made ( Footnote: Detailed information is given about this subject in our work named Foundations). Therefore his judicial opinions are mentioned in foundation certificate-charters.

      İmam-ı Muhammed have had a profound knowledge about Islamic law and Islamic law procedure and he was a great interpreter of Islamic law having an excellent moral. He spread esteemed İmam-ı A'zam's works to all world through his several works. He deceased in 189 (Islamic calendar ) in Rey city where he arrived with Harun er-Reşid. His life history is written in Teracim-i Ahval ( Detailed information is available about his life in biography books).

      İMAM-I YUSUF: His name and judicial opinion are found in foundation certificate-charters. He is a work comrade of esteemed İmam-ı A'zam. His name is Yakub and his father's name is İbrahim. He born in Kufe in 113 (Islamic calendar ). According to his judicial opinion if creator's of a waqf says that he/she dedicated as mücerred, foundation will be valid and afterwards revocation from foundation cannot be made ( Footnote: Detailed information is given about this subject in our work named Foundations). He was a kadi ( muslim judge ) in Baghdat in the period of Halife Mehdi, Hadi and Harun er-Reşid from Abbasids. Afterwards judicial power left from executive power and dismissal and appointment of kadis were intrusted. Therefore he was called as "Kâdi'l-kudât" ( Kadi of Kadis or the greatest kadi). He is first person called as Kâdi'l-kudât in Islam. He is famous with his profound knowledge, ittika ( to avoid from sins and malice) and justice. He had vast information about interpretation, megazi ( a book telling our esteemed  prophet's holy war ) and Arab history as well as Islamic law. "Kitabu'l-Harac" , one of his books, is a very known work. His life history is written in several books.

      İ'MÂR: It comes to mean to revive a place, to repair, improve and make prosperous an building.

      İMÂRET: This word contains several meanings and is Arabic. It has also prosperous meaning. Expressions such as "Emere bi-imâreti hêze'l-mescid" and "Emere bi-imâreti hêzihi'l-medrese" in some inscriptions bear this meaning. It means buildings where is cooked for students and poors in foundation terminology. These places are called as aşhâne" or "aşevi" (public soup-kitchen). To protect and guard poors and feed them are the greatest goodness in Muslimism. A lot of imarets are brought in the being by muslims having these characters and they are allocated for poors. Paricularlı in Ottomans many imarets are constructed in a great deal place of the country by considering the most humanistic charity organization. That there are approximately twenty imarethanes only in Istanbul shows how much important is given to this beneficial work. Mosque and small mosque servants, the poors, the helpless' and visitors as well as those who had education in madrasahs were benefited from these charity organizations. Unfortunately only two imarets are allowed to continue their activities and others are closed by law numbered 1327. Some of them are allocated for works as museum and storage and some of them are left in a derelict position. Afterwards it is understood and accepted that this act is wrong and to look after with the poors is an indispensable necessity and as a consequence although aşhânes" (public soup-kitchens) are established by Hilâl-i Ahmer (Kızılay) and Foundations Administration, a large scale help cannot be implemented as before. Administration of imarethanes and how and in what quantity students and poors will be helped are indicated in foundation certificate - charters. Since no community will not exist without poor persons, there are always need such charity organizations.

      İMÂRET-İ VAKIF: It comes to mean to repair dedicated real estate in accordance with form in foundation time or as stipulated. Primary cost in foundations is reconstruction. As long as this matter is ensured, income of foundation cannot be spent to other works of foundation.

      İMÂRET-İ GAYR-İ ZARÛRİYE: is noncompulsory imaret such as decoration ( repair).

      İMÂRET-İ ZARÛRİYE: To improve deficit and damage which will decrease yhe value and income of a foundation is ( imaret-I zaruriye ) compulsory repair.

      İMÂRET NÂZIRI: It comes to mean a person who supervises to meals and dining halls in imarethanes and tests the excellent and cleanliness of meals and dining halls. If he finds that excellent and cleanliness of meals and dining halls are not taken care, he informs this circumstance to director of imaret and provides not to repeat. This task take places among some imarethane servant's tasks in foundations. 

      İNŞÂ-İ VAKIF: It is a word that creates act of foundation.

      İRSÂD: It means to protect and observe.

      İRSÂDÎ VAKIF: It comes to mean allocating of interest of a real estate whose rakabe ( possession of property)  belongs to treasury by authorities to those who are debtee from treasury. This transaction is also called as foundation in return for allocation. İrsadî vakıf consists of two part as irsad-ı sahih and irsad-ı gayr-i sahih.

      İRSÂD-I GAYR-İ SAHÎH: It comes to mean allocating of interest of a real estate  belonging to treasury by authorities to those who does not have right to receive salary and allocation from treasury. It is also named as "tahsis-i gayr-i sahih''.

      İRSÂD-I SAHİH: It comes to mean allocating of interests such as a'şar, duty and right of disposition of a real estate whose rakabe ( possession of property)  belongs to treasury as it was before to those who have right to receive salary and allocation from treasury. It is also named as "tahsis-i sahih".

      İSRAF: It means spending person's asset more than adequate See tebzir).

      İSTANBUL EFENDİSİ: Formerly İstanbul Kadi would called as İstanbul Efendisi. İstanbul was separated three regions under Dersa'âdet, İstanbul and Bilâd-ı Selâse and each region was appointed a kadi. Zone which is in rampart is called as İstanbul and Eyyüb, Galata and Üsküdar are called Bilâd-ı Selâse. While İstanbul Kadi is named as İstanbul Efendisi in approximately thousand year, afterwards he is remembered under İstanbul Kadısı title.

      İSTİBDÂL: It comes to mean to exchange a foundation with property. This property may be real estate and money. Condition of foundation is examined to perform İstibdâl. If a condition is available, istibdâl is carried out in accordance with the condition. If real estate of foundation does not provide income and provided income does not covered expenses and if istibdâl becomes in favor of foundation, even if foundation is prohibited the istibdâl trustee may perform istibdâl upon consent of judge and permisson of authorized persons. It is absolutely necessary the consent of judge and permisson of authorized persons for istibdâl. Accordingly trustee cannot perform istibdâl real estate of foundation on his/her own responsibility.

      İSTİBDÂL-İ MÜSECCEL: It comes to mean istibdâl that is registered. It means to deciding of a judge about right and necessary of istibdâl in a hearing after istibdâl completes through the consent of judge and permisson of authorized persons due to realizing of conditions of istibdâl,

      İSTİKÂR: It means ihkâr.(See İhkâr).

      İSTİNÂBE: Istinâbe means to constitute in foundation. Servants of foundation may constitute other persons instead of them excused and without excused provided that they are qualified. But if foundation stipulates that task will be implemented in person, istinâbe dose not suitable as long as there is an excuse.

      İ'YÂL: It comes to mean those who are fed by a man. It is not necessary for them to live under the same roof.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      K

      KÂ'BE: is holy building located in Mekke-i Mükerreme. It has been constructed by Hazret-i Ibrâhim ve İsmâil Aleyhis-selam. It is kiblah of Muslims.

      KABRİSTAN: is a place allocated to bury the death. Cemeteries are separated some sections according to allocation forms. Some cemeteries are allocated from places under state's disposition and sovereignty on the subject of being cemetery in first establishment date of villages and towns and some of them are dedicated by their owners to bury death while they are property land. Although it is prohibited legally, there are some lands allocated as cemetery in mîrî arâzî by possessors or other persons via their permission. Such cemeteries are often found in villages. Most of cemeteries are general but there are also special cemeteries. Some of them are derelict and some are used as cemetery. With article 160 of Municipalities Law some cemeteries are assigned to municipalities and a regulation is executed in this subject. Since a full clarity in the law is not available, some conflicts occur about nonislam cemeteries between municipalities and communities. ( see Article 160 and regulation)

      KADI: It derives of kaza foot and means decree. Person who is appointed by authorities to solve conflicts and cases occurring among people in Islamic law terminology are called as Kadi.

      KADI-ASKER(Kadi of Army): There are approvals and seal of kadıaskers in foundation certificate-charters. Therefore I found useful to make explanation about capacities, authorities and duties. Kadıaskerlik ( Kadi of Army ) was available in some islam states formerly. Kadıasker was not apoointed until 1. Murad period in Ottomans. Before this period belde kadi ( kadi of city or town) would go with army as Kadil-kuzat and execute  Kadı-asker task. In the Orhan Bey period, Candarlı Kara Halil Efendi, who is İznik Kadi, had authority over kadis appointed to cities and towns. Afterwards since soldier is separated to class' and increases religious works of army during Sultan Murad period, Candarlı Kara Halil Efendi was appointed as kadiasker. Although there is a kadiasker until deceased Fatih's sovereignty, kadıaskerlik is increased two parts under  Anadolu and Rumeli Kadı-askeri title in that date.

      The biggest bodies of judicial organization were Kazaskers ( Chief of Judicial Institution, called as Kadiasker). They would follow the army in cruises commanded by Sultan. When army goes to Europe, Rumeli Kazaskeri would accompany and when army goes to Asia and Africa, Anadolu Kazaskeri would accompany. The most important task of Kazaskers was to execute legal consultancy for sultans. However they would preside distribution of captures and look after with legal cases arising between army and its members. Other than these Kazaskers would execute judgeship duty in capital and judges to be sent to Rumeli was appointed by Rumeli Kazaskeri and judges to be sent to Anatolia was appointed by Anatolia Kazaskeri. These judges are called as naib who is naib of Kazasker. In last periods duty of Kazaskers is limited to look after with cases in İstanbul and to conclude them.

      KAİMMAKÂM-I MÜTEVELLİ: It comes to mean a person who is appointed by judge to deal with foundations works temporarily in some circumstances such as bringing suit against trustee or going to far places without trustee representative.  As Foundations Law numbered 2762 is submitted the appointment of kaimmakam-ı mütevelli to foundation Administration under some conditions, kaimmakam-ı mütevelli appointment procedure is abolished.

      KALENDERHÂNE: Kalender means a dervis who gives up all worldly things and enjoys from spiritual truths. Zaviyes that are built for sheltering of poor dervishes are called as Kalenderhane. Invocation, worship, Sufism and ma'rifetullah ( to recognize God and to know God's names, properties and to know divine truths) would be engaged in these places.

      KAMERÎ SENE: It is accepted year according to month calculation. Therefore it is called as Kamerî. In Cahiliyet Period ( period before esteemed Muhammed ) night when moon appears in form of crescent is accepted first day of month. Time passing until moon appears again in the form of crescent is accepted as one month and twelve months are considered as ane year. Kamerî history whose starting date is Muharrem month according to hejira date is accepted in Hazret-i Ömer period in islam history and Europeans prefers Şemsî history. Month and year mentioned in islamic works are kameri month and year. There are approximately ten days difference between kameri history and şemsi history. In other words kameri year is less than ten days according to şemsi year.

      KANAT: It means pipe and sewage from inside of which water will be transmitted. Its plural is kanavât.

      KANTARA: It means bridge. Cisr has also same meaning. Cisr bears a more general meaning according to Kamus commentator's statement. Arch bridge and without arch bridge are named as cisr and bridge constructed on arch is called as kantara ( see cisr).

      KAPAN: Formerly places where foods are wholly sold are called as kapan. It is used together with names sold things such as Unkapanı and Balkapanı. There are several explanations and statements in some works regarding kapans. It is generally understood that these places are a kind of depots belonging to foods. Kabban means kantar ( bascule ) and terazi (scale) in Arabic; but original of this is not Arabic and it is converted to Arabic from Persian. Its Persian is kebbân. Although this word has other meanings, they is not related with our subject and therefore we disregarded to make explanation.

      KARÂBET: It comes to mean those who have relation with last father living islam period from father and mother side or both of them side. Karabet has this meaning for muslims and nonmuslims.

      KARN: It means era and one hundred year. It is also called as century. Although it has other meanings, it is used in this meaning in foundations certificate-charter.

      KARNEN BA'DE KARNİN: It means from era to era and from century to century. It express' continuousness. But it does not attest to order. For example if creator of a waqf stipulates income of his/her foundation to his/her child and child of his/her child as karnen ba'de karnin, child in precedent and next generations entitles to income.

      KERVANSARAY: are buildings constructed between big cities and towns where caravans lodge and rest people of caravans and their animals. Traveller would lodge in full safety in these caravansaries connecting four side of country each other. Caravansaries was a art monument having built in an excellent form. Although centuries pass, some of them still keeps their old style and strength and some of them are in ruined circumstance and birds shelter there. Ottomans give extraordinary importance to caravansaries as Selçukis give important to caravansaries making easy the travelling and therefore Ottomans builts caravansaries from place to place. Most of caravansaries were foundation. People who lodge in these places would stay without free. Those who lodge in caravansaries which don't have foundation and income were paid a little amount. All requirements of vistors were taken into consideration. Caravansaries were avaible not only on road but also in transit centers of big cities. Esteemed researcher Zeki Pakalın gives detailed information about caravansaries in his work related to history phrases and terms (See Pakalın, II, page 245). 

      KARZ-I HASEN: It comes to mean money without interest. Money is dedicated without interest for those who need money against firm bailsman and pledge in foundations certificate-charters.

      KÂSE-ŞÛY: It means dishwasher. This term takes place in foundations certificate-charters of tekke ( Islamic monastery ), imâret and hospital.

      KÂTİB-İ HÂFIZ-I KÜTÜB: It means a person who is responsibility for registering of numbers and names of books in library and giving other people outside library and writing given books and performing hâfız-ı kütüb's orders regarding library.  

      KÂTİB-İ İMÂRET: It means a person who registers supplies and commodities entrying and exiting to imaret.

      KAYYIM: It means a person who looks, supervises and keeps commodity of foundation. Also trustee would be called as kayyım.

      KEFÎL-İ MELİ: is bailsman having wealth.

      KEHHÂL: It is derived of kehl root. Kehl has several meanings and it means to use eyeliner for eye. Ophthalmolosgists would be named as kehhâl. Ophthalmolosgists is mentioned under kehhâl title in foundations certificate-charters of hospitals. Chief of ophthalmolosgists in palace would be called as kehhâlbaşı. Arabs say Tâbibü'l-uyûn. The reason why ophthalmolosgists are called as kehhal is that eyeliner is useful for eye and eye diseases.

      KENDÜM (GENDÜM) KUB: It comes to mean a person who grinds and prepares wheats to which charity institutions such as imarethane and hospitals require. It is mentioned in the scope of a service in some foundations certificate-charters and a price is determined for it.

      KENNÂS: It is derived of kens root. Kens means to sweep in Arabic. Kennâs means a person who sweeps and cleans the water-closet. Kennas takes place as a service in some foundations certificate-charters and a price is determined for it.

      KIŞLAK: It means low places whose air, grass and water are used in winter and where snow does not fall and it consists of two parts. Some of them are places disposed individually and jointly through deed title and they are not different from cultivated land and provisions about mirî arazi are applied for them and winter quarters tax is collected from them. Other is a kışlak that is individually allocated for village people or is allocated jointly for a few village people. Village and town people to whom this place is allocated only benefit from water and grass of this place and other persons cannot benefit from this place. Winter quarters tax is collected according to tax paying ability of these places. Kışlaks are derelict lands and cannot be bought and sold and culvitated without people's consent and they are not subject to the lapse of time.

      KIYYE-VUKIYYE: It means 400 dirhems. It is used as ukiyye or vukiyye in Arabic. Seven miskal or fourty dirhem are called as kiyye-vukiyye. It is used as vukiyye in most of foundations certificate-charters and in old laws and regulations.

      KİBS: is soil filled in holes to convert a place to field. To fill in and level the hole places are also called as kibs.

      KİLERDÂR: It comes to mean a person who is responsibility for keeping foods and drinks and using them for required places and circumstances. Kilerdâr-ı Âmire and  kilerdârbaşı are phares related with palace and they mean storekeeper and chief storekeeper of palace.

      KİSE: Formerly hundred akçe, hundred thousand akçe are called as respectively one kise and one yük. On yük is named as one hazine. After kuruş is accepted, terms such as kese and yük are left.

      KURBET: It comes to mean to feel affection and to worship to Supreme Being. Kurbet and worship for Supreme Being are accepted as reason of foundation's establishment.

      KÜRSİ ŞEYHİ: It means a person who gives sermon and advice to community in big mosques on Fridays after Friday Prayer. Kürsi şheikhs prayer would be called as Friday Prayer among people. Kürsi şheikhdom was a science way and a merit established to make guidance to people. The highest degree of Kürsi şheikhdom was Kürsi şheikhdom of Ayasofya. Kürsi şheikhdom previously started in Eyüp Cami-i Şerifi and afterwards number of Kürsi şheikhdom was increased up to seven. These were Eyüp, Sultan Selim, Fatih, Bayezid, Süleymaniye, Sultan Ahmed and  Ayasofya Kürsi şheikhdoms. In the case of resignation, successively promotion would be carried out towards above degree and finally vacant Eyüp Cami-I Şerif would be appointed as Kürsi şheikhdom. When we receive education, Ayasofya Kürsi Şeyhi was deceased Manastırlı İsmail Hakkı Efendi who was an excellent and famous scholar. Thousands of people and students would come to Ayasofya for Friday Prayer to listen this esteemed person and they would listen him within an extraordinary careful and spiritual pleasure after ending of Friday prayer and some of them would write their motions.

     Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      L

      LEYLE-İ BERÂT: This is fifteenth night of Şaban month meaning God's mercy and forgiveness night. Believers's prays are accepted and their sins are forgiven by God in this holy night. Deceased Elmalılı Hamdi Efendi in explanation of verse "İnnâ enzelnâhu fî leyleti'l-mübâreke" and deceased Hacı Zihni Efendi in section under title Kitabu's-salât of his work named "Nimetü'l-İslâm"  make detailed explanations about Leyle-i berât. Our master called as Fahr-i kainat ( a great person with whom all universe feels honored and takes pride ) says that one of five night when prays will not be able to be rejected by God is Berat Night.  All Muslims worship and entreat for God this night as well as other holy nights.

      LEYLE-İ KADR: Whenever foundation is said kurbet and worship to Almighty God come to mind, whenever kurbet and worship is said holy days and nights come to mind. Leyle-i kader is twenty seventh night of Ramazan month as accepted by Cumhur (public) and is the most holy and blessed night. That expression takes place in one of hadiths related by several ways and müttefekunaleyh ( a hadith about which all hadith scientists agree) hadiths: '' Seek leyle-i kadr in last seven of Ramazan month'' and  also another hadith tells that: '' Seek leyle-i kadr, whoever wishes to seek he/she should seek it in last seven of Ramazan month''. Leyle-i Kadir is a very holy and blessed night. Supreme Being orders that we inspired Kuran-ı Kerim in Leyle-i Kadir, it is more benevolent than thousand months.  '' In another hadith that expression takes place: '' Whoever worships in Leyle-i Kadir, his/her sins committed in past by him/her will be forgiven''. Due to holiness of this night, all Muslims worship to God in twenty seventh night of Ramazan until morning and request God to be forgiven and be happy. For honor and goodness of this night, some foundations stipulates that Koran will be read in every Leyle-i Kadir and presented its rewards to all souls and that mosque and small mosques will be lighted until morning in these holy nights by lighting candle and lamp.

      LEYLE-İ Mİ'RÂC:  It is a holy night when our master called as Fahr-i kainat has travelled from Mescid-i harâm ( Kaaba) to Mescîd-i Aksâ ( aaqsa mosque ) and afterwards has risen to âlem-i semâvât ( heavens ) and it corresponds to 27th of Recep month.  Our master has witnessed to many miraculous events during this travelling in heavens and five time prayer has became obligation in this night. Mi'râc is one of our esteemed prophet's miracles as inşikâk-ı Kamer ( split of moon). When Almighty God's power and greatness take into consideration, Mi'râc is not an event to be exaggrated and hesitated by believers and comprehension owners as long as they believe Almighty God's power and greatness. All muslims celebrates this holy night by worshipping and making charities and goodness'. See deceased Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır's Sure-i İsrâ explanation for further information about Mirâc.  

      LEYLE-İ REGÂİB: It is first Friday night of Receb month. It may coincide first, second or seventh day of Receb month. Siyer ( life story of prophets) writers and some scholars explain that our master called as Fahr-i kainat falls to uterus from his father's offspring this night. But there are no any clarities related to this matter in Islamic law and hadith books. All muslims celebrates this holy night by worshipping and praying for God.

      Lİ-EB: It comes to mean child of the same father. Li-eb brother/sister means brother/sister of the same father and li-eb uncle and aunt means father's brother/sister borning from the same father.

      Lİ-EBEVEYN: It means blood brother/sister. Li-ebeveyn brother/sister means blood brother/sister and Li-ebeveyn uncle and aunt means father' s blood brother/sister.

      Lİ-ÜM: It means children of the same mother. Li-üm brother/sister means brother/sister of the same mother and Li-üm uncle and aunt means father's brother/sister borning from same mother.

      LONCA is a word taken from Italian. In fact it means room and it is a place where leadings of craftsman and merchant selected to deal with works of them are gathered. But when lonca is said committee gathering there is meant. 

      LÜZÛMÎ VAKIF: Foundation is in such a position where abolition of foundation is not possible. There is an agreement about legality of foundation but its necessity is disputed. According to İmâm-ı A'zam's even if cretor of a wagf submits dedicated real estate to trustee, this is not necessary and accordingly cretor of a wagf may give up from his/her foundation at any time.  But according to the said İmâm-ı A'zam foundation is necessary in two circumstances. Either with judge's decree or  through will after his / her death. When judge decides foundation's necessity foundation becomes necessity and this foundation cannot be abolished and cancelled. This is called as registration of foundation. Thus someone makes a foundation through will and afterwards he/she dies by insisting on his/her will, the said foundation cannot be abolished and cancelled. According to İmâm-ı Yusuf's judicial opinion foundation comes into existence as necessary. Its necessity is not subject to deliver to trustee as it is not in need of judge's decree.

       According to İmâm-ı Muhammed's judicial opinion since foundation is a grant it does not express necessity as long as foundation is not submitted to trustee and meşrûtunleh. Revocation from foundation is possible at any time. But when foundation is submitted trustee or meşrûtunleh, it is not possible not to abide this circumstance. Although there is this conflict, those who make foundation take decree related to his / her foundations' necessity by means of applying to judge.   Because judge decides under any opinions in legal matters, to make performance in accordance with that decision is compulsory.

      

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      M

      MAHALL-İ SADAKA : It comes to mean a person who is suitable to receive charity. For example as poors and helpless'.

      MAHALL-İ VAKF: It is synonymous of mevkuf ( dedicated real estate ) word. It means real estate over which there is foundation's disposition. For example creator of a waqf says that he / she dedicated his / her shop in a certain place or his/her inn in a certain place for poors, the said shop and inn becomes mahall-i vakf.

      MÂHİ'N-NUKÛŞ: It is derived of mahv root meaning to destroy. Nukuş is plural of  nakş word. Naks are things such as writing and its similars. Mâhi'n-nukûş comes to mean a person removing things such as writing and its similars and he is a waged servant in some foundations. Someone appointed for this service is responsible for erasing and removing writings and pictures made by some persons to walls of mosques, water-tanks with a fountain, toilets and foundation buildings.

      MAHKEME-İ EVKÂF: It is a court established before old Foundation Ministry to try cases such as Vakfiyet, tevliyet, icâreteynle tasarruf and to perform some matters such as justification statement, abolition of icâre-i müeccele, Trustee accountings, Foundation arrangement and appointmens in case of absence of owners of real estates. This court would be called as Mahkeme-i Teftiş-i Evkaf in Meşrutiyet period.  Until 1254 ( Islamic calendar ) although inspectorships of Evkaf-ı Hümâyûn and  Haremeyn Evkaf are separated, they were combined in the said date and Mahkeme-i Teftiş ( Inspection Court ) was established under Evkaf-ı Hümâyûn inspectorship title and afterwards they were abolished by law about abolition of religious courts and their documents and files were transferred İstanbul 6th  6. Court of First Instance.

      MAHLÛL: It means müstegal recoursing to foundation due to death of owner of foundation without appointing a person who will take over foundation. See müstegal.

      MAHLÛL GEDİK: It comes to mean gedik recoursing to owner of rakabe by means of being free from owner's rights.

      MAHLÛL MUACCELESİ : It is a payment received in advance in renting to demanders of real estates that are returned to their foundations through müstegallât-ı vakfiye in Mukataa-i kadîm or due to death owners of foundation. This is understood from this term. There is a clause called as mahlûl muaccelesi  among incomes in Foundation Budget Law dated 1964. Since mukataa and icâreteyn transavtions are abolished, meaning we said should not understood from term in Budget Law. Maybe purpose is to state price to be obtained from real estates to be sold. But the said term doesn't come to this mean. If so, it was necessary to say mahlul prices.

      MAHYACI: It comes to mean a person writing religious, ethic and social mottos through lamps in night among makyas (roof ridges). Roof ridges is carried out among small mosques in Ramazan month. 

      MAKLÛAN KIYMET: It means values of wreckage of building after pulling down and uprooted trees.

      MAL: It comes to mean a thing to which human nature tends and people save it for requirement time. It is described as thing endevaured to gain.

      MAL-I VAKF: It means good belonging to foundation.

      MA'LÛM: It means duty. Its plural is meâlîm. When trustee's malum is said, trustee's duty and wage are understood.

      MÂNİUN-NUKUŞ: It comes to mean a person who is responsible for prohibition writing and drawing picture to their walls by walking around buildings such as mosque, madrasah and tomb. These duties are stipulated as a service in foundation certificate-chartes and therefore a wage is determined for those executing this service. See mâhin-nukuş

      MANSUR MÜTEVELLÎ: It means a person who is appointed by judge to vacant tevliyets for which a condition is not stipulated by creator of a waqf about being trustee. As per condition of creator of waqf, appointed trustee is called as meşrûd mütevelli.

      MASÂRIF-I VAKF: It comes to mean persons for whom foundation's interests are conditional. They are called as meşrutün-leh and mevkûf ün-aleyh de denir. See these articles.

      MEBERRÂT: It is plural of Meberre. Meberre means goodness and benevolence.

      MEBNİYYEN KIYMET: It comes to meanvalue of  Ebniye in its current position and land is evaluated once with ebniye and once without ebniye. Different between two values means value of ebniye. For example if land is TL 10.000 with ebniye and TL 6.000 TL without ebniye, TL 4.000 shows value of ebniye.

      MECLÎS-Î ŞER': It comes to mean hearing contracted by judge to try or listen a decision. Attributing to religious by court intents applying of religious provisions.

      MEFHÛM-I MUHÂLİF: It means to dissent indicated decision. This is called as delil-i hitâb. For example if creator of a waqf says in his/her foundation certificate charters that galle of his / her foundation  will be given his / her sons,  mefhûm-ı muhâlifi of this expression means that his/her daughters will not be given galle of his / her foundation. Although Mefhûm-ı muhâlif is not deemed as evidence in deciding as per Hanefi sect, it is valid in musannif's ( a person who classifies the books ) words and in conservation and ordinary statements. For example if interprets of Islamic law says that place of foundation is mal-i mütekavvim ( everything that is obtained actually and to which islam accepts permissible to use ), it is understood that foundation of non mütekavvim good is not clarity. Mefhûm-ı sıfat, ınefhûm-ı şart, mefhûm-ı gaye, mefhûm-ı aded, mefhûm-ı lakab is derived of rnefhûm-ı muhalif.

      MELİ: It means a possessor and rich person. For example creator of a waqf stipulates that money will be dedicated for '' good works '' and this money will be lent to ahara against bailsman and pledge and will be bought books and pencils for students from its ribh, this money may be loaned through rich bailsman and with pledge whose value will be enough to pay debt.

      MENÂFİ-İ VAKF: It comes to mean interests to be provided by foundation's assets. For example rent, ribh, sükna ( residence right ) and fruit etc.

      MENKUL: It comes to mean immovable which cannot be carried from a place to another place. It contains nukud, urûz, animals, mekilât ( things such as wheat and barleys which are bought and sold with capacity measure ) and mevzunat ( weighable things ) and adediyyât ( numbers). (see these articles).

      MEN LEH ÜL-İSTİĞLÂL: It means a person to whom galle of foundation is given. For example if someone dedicates a good and stipulates galle of this good to his/her daughters and after them for poor persons, his / her daughter and poor person become leh ül-istiğlâl.

      MEN LEHÜS-SÜKNÂ: It comes to mean a person having to sükna ( residence right )  of foundation. For example someone is dedicated a house and its sükna ( residence right ) stipulates daughters of poors and their poor daughters batnen ba'de batnin, daughters are called as men lehü's-süknâ.

      MENŞÛR: It comes to mean firman ( ordinance ) conferred by sultan.  It contains ranks such as vizier and general of the army.

      MERÂFİK: It is plural of Mirfak. Mirfak means to perform a work with gentleness. Original root is rifk. Rifk comes to mean to utilize and provide interest. Threfore it is called as utilized things such as well and kitchen of a place and a house. İrtifak (easement ) is disposed in the scope of this meaning.

      MEREMMET: It means to improve and repair.

      MEREMMET-İ GAYR-İ MÜSTEHLEKE: It comes to mean places which may separate from building easily without consumption. For example ladder, well and cabinet etc.

      MEREMMET-İ MÜSTEHLEKE: It comes to mean places which cannot separate from building easily without consumption. For example paint and plaster etc.

      MERKAD: It means a place where will be slept. Therefore Our esteemed prophet's grave in Madinah is called as merkad-i nebî.

      MESÂLİH-İ MESCİD: It comes to mean persons and other equipments who/which are required to implement expected purposes from small mosque. For example appointment of officers such as imam, preacher, muezzin, trustee and requirement related to lighting and furnishing of small mosque.

      MESÂLİH-İ VAKF: It means matters which are required to implement expected purposes from foundation. For example appointment of teacher, profesoor, imam and reacher and repairing of foundation's real estates and collecting rents and their prices.

      MESCİD: It comes to mean chapel special to muslims. In our manners and customs place of worship where Friday and Bayram Prayer are not performed is called as Mescîd and place of worship where Friday and Bayram Prayer are performed is called as Mosque. Mescîd-i Aksâ is famous temple in Jerusalem and Mescîd'i Haram is Kabbah.

      MESNEVİ :It is famous work of Celalüddin-i Rumi written by him as poetic in Persian.  There are many comments in Persian and Turkish and it is translated into several languages.

      MEŞRÛTÜN-LEH: It means a person to whom interest of foundation is stipulated. For example if creator of a waqf stipulates to dedicate incomes of inn to professor and student of a madrasah or to imam and preacher of a mosque, these persons is considered as meşrûtun-leh.

      MEVKÛF: It means a dedicated good.

      MEVKÛFUN-ALEYH: It means a person to whom interest of foundation is stipulated. It is synonymous of Meşrûtun-leh. 

      MEVLÂ: This word has several meanings malik ( possessor ) and effendi ( master, lord ). It comes to mean a person who emancipates and is emancipated. It has a meaning according to place in the sentence. Its plural is mevâli.

      MEZBÛR: It would be used about person who is unlettered and in the meaning of the said person. Mezbûren is used in its dual form and mezbûrûn is used in its plural form. If person is women, mezbûre is used in its single form and mezbûretan is used in its dual form and mezbûrat is used in its plural form. See Mumâileyh, Müşârûnileyh.

      MİL: Formerly it would be used for a distant of 2500  zira' tul (linear measure unit) in Ottoman State and a distant of 1000 zira' tul in Europe. Afterwards geographers divided in twenty parts one degree and each of twenty parts was called as fersah and one third of each fersah was called as mile by them. According to this calculation fersah means a distance of one hour and mil means a distance of twenty minutes. Since geography mile of many countries are several, their land and sea miles are several.

      MİSKİN: It comes to mean a person who has no anything. Its plural is mesâkin.

      MUALLİM: It means teacher giving lesson in schools.

      MUÂMELE-İ ŞERİYYE: It comes to mean Muâmele-i hukukîyye ( legal proceedings). Also transaction implemented for interest binding is called as Muâmele-i Şeriyye. For example a dedicated money is lent to someone for a definite time. Accrued interest within that time is calculated. With purpose of turning into a debt of this interest, a person who lent from good of foundation is sold a good in return for money corresponding to lent money and  then the said person grants the said good to foundation.  In this way interest converts into legal debt. This transaction is called as muâmele-i şer'iyye.

      MUGÂRESE: It comes to mean a contract executed to plant a tree on a land to give a certain share from expected result to person who plants the tree. According to our old and new legislation even if this contract is implemented both on real estate and sahih and gayr-i sahih foundation, it is not valid. Person who plants tree may request owner of land to price of saplings and its ecr-i misli, but cannot request share from results and land.

      MUHDES GEDİK: It comes to mean gediks established after 1247 ( Islamic calendar).

      MUİD: It means restorer in library. In manners and customs it comes to mean a person who negotiates student's lesons and returns and explains teacher's reports. He is also called as assistant professor. 

      MUKATAA: It comes to mean a land's annual price who is determined by owner to give land foundation in a real estate whose land is dedicated and whose trees and building are property. Also it is called as icâre-i zemin.

      MUKATAA-İ KADÎMELİ MÜSTEGALLÂT-I VAKFİYYE: It comes to mean müstegallât which is rented through  mukataa and where building is not constructed and planted tree. 

      MUKATAA-I ZEMİN: It comes to mean a tax collected as price from places of buildings constructed on Mîrî arâzî and from arâzî-i emîrîyye used as coppice and pasture. Also it is called as icâre-i zemin. This tax is imposed to compensate the arising loss since treasury couldn't collect öşür.

      MÛMÂ-İLEYH: It is used for person who are literate. If there are two persons mûma-ileyhimâ is said and if there are more person than one mûmâ-ileyhim is said. If there are one or two women and other person is man, the circumstance is so again. If woman mûmâ-ileyhâ is said, mûmâ-ileyhimâ is used in its repeat. See mezbûr, mûşarünileyh.

      MUNZAM MÜTEVELLÎ: It means a person who is appointed by judge to help to trustee in requirement time.

      MUSALLÂ: It comes to mean a place where salaat will be performed. There are special places to perform salaat in some cities and on roads. Kiblah direction is indicated with mihrâb and a stone. Wide places are allocated to perform Friday and Bayram salaat under namazgah ( a place where salaat is performed) name in some big cities and minber is established to give sermon by surrounding with a wall. Some namazgahs are foundation and formerly some of them is allocated by state to perform salaat. Other than these there are some places allocated in particular to perform funeral prayer in mosque courtyards and they are called as musalla and stone where is placed funerals is called as musalla stone.  

      MUSILLA-İ SAHN: It means madrasahs constructed to enter into Sahn madrasahs in Mediterranean sea and black sea sides of Fatih Camii şerifi where is performed higher education. As stated in articles related to İbtidâ-i haric and ibtîdâ-i dahil, primary education would be performed in hane madrasahs after sıbyan school ( ottoman elemantary-primary school ) and secondary education would be performed in dahil madrasahs and those who graduated from these schools and who wish to make higher education would be registered to Musılla madrasahs without exam. Students who succeeded in these schools would promote to Sahn madrasahs and names of students who graduated from there would be registered to book of Divân-ı Hümâyûn. This secondary madrasahs, in the other words musılalar, would be named as Tetimme madrasahs.

      MUSILLA-İ SÜLEYMANİYE: It means idadi ( secondary education institutions in Ottoman) madrasahs of Süleymaniye High Madrasahs. It was necessary to receive education from these secondary education madrasahs and to prove competence to register into Süleymaniye High Madrasahs.  

      MÜSKE: It comes to mean to have a right in library. In terminology it means to have right to make agricultural. This right is called as müşedd-i müske. For example if someone rents a land from another person to make agricultural and therefore if the said person have right to make agricultural in the boundaries of that land, this circumstance is called as müske. Although it is sometimes used by including girder, it is not used in our language. See Girdar.

      MUTASARRIF: It means a tenant who has right to circulate the real estate of a foundation which has circulation characteristic as İcâreteynli vakıflar ( foundations). For example tenant of an İcâreteynli vakıf could be assigned the leased property which is under his/her lease to third person.  That person was owner of foundation but was not possessor. According to Land Law, tenants of mîrî arâzî did not have rakabe of the said land but they were owner of  the said land. 

      MÜCTEHED ÜN-FİH: It comes to mean matters about which islam scientists have several and different opinions since there is no clarity and absolute clauses about them.

      MÜDDET-İ SEFER: It means to three day distance by foot. A person who goes to three day distance is named as müsafir in religious term and clauses about müsafir are applied for them. Although someone who goes to less distance and goes to see another person living in a town and city are called as müsafir in our manners and customs, they are not called as müsafir in religious terminology and provisions regarding müsafir don't applied for them.

      MÜDERRİS: It is derived of Tedrîs word. It means a person who gives education in madrasahs in accordance with usual methods.

      MÜESSESÂT: It is plural of Müesses. Müesses means a work which is come into existence.

      MÜESSESÂT-I HAYRİYYE: It comes to mean temples, schools, madrasahs, hospitals and other charity institutions.

      MÜEZZİN: It comes to mean a person who performs azan and stature tasks in mosques and small mosques.

      MÜFTEKİR: It means poor and helpless person. A person who becomes poor while rich is accepted as müftekir.

      MÜFTİ: It is derived of İftâ word. It means a person who answers to questions about religious matters. Muftis are appointed to fullfil this task in towns, livas and cities in Ottoman State and Republic of Turkey. Mufti's duty is to state religious clause according to nature of event. Mufti does not have right to rule. If concerned persons don't accept, they may apply to court.

      MÜLK : It means a real estate to which a person owns. It contains good, receivable and interest.

      MÜLK GEDİK: is gedik which is not dedicated. See Gedik

      MÜLKNÂME: It comes to mean a firman and document which includes assignments of religious rights or rekâbesi of a land section to one or more persons by sultan.

      MÜNÂKALE-İ VAKF: If creator of a waqf transfers his/her vakfiyet from a real estate to his/her other real estate, this action is called as münakale-i vakıf. It has istibdal characteristic. If istibdal is stipulated it becomes valid otherwise it is invalid. For example if someone has several houses and shops and he/she dedicates one of his/her houses and he/she stipulates changing of one of his/her shops in foundation certificate-charter, he/she may transfer his/her vakfiyet on house to shop as he/she wishes. So vakfiyyet nature of the house perishes. If there is no such a condition in foundation certificate-charter, creator of a waqf cannot transfer vakfiyyet on the house to the shop. Its opposite is called as "müzâyede".

      MÜNÂKASA: It means diminish and reduce. It comes to mean to determine person giving the lowest price from merchants and contractors due to tender related to goods to be purchased and constructions and repair to be performed by charity institutions. Its opposite is '' müzayede ''.

      MUNKATIÜL-EVVEL: It comes to mean a foundation which does not have a meşrut'ün-lehi firstly. For example: If creator of a waqf stipulates his/her foundation's income to his/her child and if he/she does not have a child, this foundation is named as munkatıul-evvel vakıf.

      MUNKATIUL-EVSÂT: It means a foundation which has a meşrutûn-lehi firstly and which become münkatı afterwards. For example if creator of a waqf stipulates his/her foundation to sons from his / her offspring and after son received foundation's income for a while if creator of a waqf dies afterwards and if a son comes into the world from his/her daughter, this foundation is called as muntakıul-evsat.  

      MUNKATIUL-ÂHİR: It comes to mean a foundation which has a meşrutün-lehi firstly and afterwards it becomes münkariz completely.

      MURABIT: It comes to mean soldier and warrior residing in boundaries to protect the country from enemy's offense.  See Ribât.

      MÜRİD: It comes to mean a dervish who enters into the service of a mürşit ( guide ) but cannot reach sülûk degree ( to arrive to God). This term decribes a person who enters into the service of Sufism and is in first degree yet.

      MÜRSAD: It means a debt which arises from repair of a foundation. That is, If a foundation requires repairing and its income is not enough for repairing and if there is no demander to rent with a muaccele which is adequate for repairing, after this foundation is repaired it may be leased to third persons provided that it will recourse to foundation in a future date. In this way money spent by tenant from his/her good for repairing is set off by tenant from leasing price. 

      MÜRTEZİKA: It comes to mean persons to whom foundation's interests are allocated. 

      MÜSÂFİR: It is derived of sefer word. Sefer is to travel from a place to another place. Müsafir comes to this meaning. In religious terminology it means a person who leaves from his/her village and town to go three day distance.

      MÜSAKAT: It comes to mean a contract which a person signs with other persons to deal with and improve his/her trees provided that its income is shared among them. It is a type of company. For example if owner of garden or tree says to another person '' look after with this garden, lop trees, water them and says that income will be common and if the said person is accepted this, in this case müsakat is considered to be signed. 

      MÜSAKKAF: It comes to mean müstegal which contains buildings having to ceiling. For example house and shop etc. Its plural is müsakkafat.

      MUSENNAT: It means edges of boundary and water barrage and water canals. Its plural is müsenneyât.

      MÜSTAĞNEN ANH VAKF: It means a foundation to which there is no any requirements any longer. For example if a village distributes completely and there is nobody to performance prayer, mosque of village becomes müstağnen-anh, in the other words its existence is unnecessary. Similarly for example although a foundation establishes with purpose of lighting of town through gas lamps and afterwards this town is lighted by electric, the existence of said foundation is unnecessary. If a foundation from Müessesât-ı hayrîye ( charity institutions ) becomes müstağnen-anh, income belonging to this foundation is spent to another Müessesât-ı hayrîye ( charity institutions ) from same kind by consent of authority body. With regard nefs-i hayrî müessese becoming Müstağnen-anh, their land and wreckage recourses to creator of waqf and if creator of waqf dies they recourse creator's of waqf successors. If creator of waqf does not have successors or successors are known, they are spent for another charity institution from same kind. According to another judicial opinion they don't recourse to creator of a waqf and his/her successors and they is submitted to a foundation from same kind. For example if people of village distributes and small mosque of the village becomes unusable completely, its land and wreckage recourses to creator of waqf or his/her successors. According to another judicial opinion a small mosque is constructed by its wreckage to a close village and land is allocated for this small mosque.

      MÜSTEGÂL: It comes to mean a good which is dedicated with purpose of providing galle and income to administrate the charity works. Its plural is müstegallât. It contains real estate such as field, garden, fin, bathhouse and land and money which must provide interest and movables belonging to the foundation and equipments called as gedik. If müsakkafat and müstegallât-ı mevkûfe is mentioned in a place müstegallât is meant, if opposite of müsekkafât is mentioned in a place non müsakkaf is meant.

      MUSTAHLAS GEDİK: It comes to mean a gedik which cannot be carried to another place although it is delivered from old place to move to another place. Also gedik whose property is burnt is called as müstahlâs gedik. This term is used to imply that place where gedik is permanent is a land.

      MÜSTEHİKKUL KAL' OLARAK KIYMET: It comes to mean value which remains after kal' price is reduced from fixed price. Value as Müstehikkul kal' becomes little up to removal price.

      MÜSTEKÂR GEDİK : It means a gedik whose decision is available in a certain real estate. See Gedik.

      MÜSTESNÂ EVKÂF: It comes to foundation which are directly conducted by trustees without being supervision of foundation administration. As Eizze and  guzât foundations.

      MÜŞÂRUN-ALEYH : It is used for persons who are in eminence in terms of scientist and official duty. They have high knowledge and wisdom. Müşârün-ileyh always works with a tireless effort and spends his/her live with education and researching. It is called as müşarûn-ileyhim in its single form and is called as müşârünileyhim in its plural form. Its plural is not available to use. See Mümâileyh, Mezbûr

      MÜŞRİF-İ VAKF: It comes to mean a person who is appointed to inspect the actions of owner. Also it is named as nazır.

      MÜTEFEVVİZ: It comes to mean a person who considers and takes over right of disposition in müsakkafat and müstegallât-ı mevkûfe having circulation nature.

      MÜTEKELLİM ALE'L-VAKF: It means trustee of foundation. It is synonymous of kayyim which means Mütevellî and mütevelîi.

      MÜTEVELLİ: It comes to mean a person who is appointed to conduct and examine works of foundation. Those who are called as bodies of administration by Civil Code comes to mean trustee. Trustee may be any person provided that he has required qualifications to be trustee. Some foundations stipulates to some authorties the tevliyet of their foundations. Accordingly There are foundations stipulated to person who is Fetva Emini ( a person preparing fetwa ), kadi or governor of city and they are called as Makama Meşrut Vakıf. Such foundations are taken under control through foundations law. Supervision of a foundation cannot be conferred upon trustee of that foundation.

      MÜTEVERRÎ: It comes to mean a person who avoids from things which are prohibition, forbidden by religion, sin and suspicious. If creator of a waqf stipulates in his/her foundation certificate-charter that a müteverri imam will be appointed to Cami-i şerife built and dedicated by him/her, imam to be appointed must have abovementioned characteristics. Of course this characteristic is determined according to external appreance of the said person.

      MÜTTEKÎ: It comes to mean a person who avoids from things which are prohibition and forbidden by religion. Different between Müteverri and müttekî is that: Müteverri avoids from things which are prohibition and forbidden by religion as he/she avoids from suspicious actions and deeds.

      MUVAKKİT-HÂNE: It means buildings which are constructed to determine time in a corner of some mosque courtyards. There is a clock and rubu tahtası ( a type of timer ) and similar tools used to measure time.  Person who is appointed as muvakkit adjustes clocks in the morning and night and repaires them if required. People learn time by looking these clocks and adjust their watches. Muvakkits would generally be selected from persons who had a good grasp of hey'et ilmi.  They would give hey'et ilmi to applied people as well as abovementioned services. Esteemed scientist and deceased Fatin Efendi, founder of our observatory, received first hey'et lessons from deceased Hüseyin Efendi, muvakkit of Sultan Selim Cami and Fatih Ders-i â'm, in İstanbul and finally he rised up to the greatest hey'et scholar degree. Hey'et ilmi would be given in madrasahs until quite recently and chief astrologers would be selected among these persons.

      MÜVELLA: It comes to mean special judge who is appointed by valiyyül'-emir to resolve a legal conflict if local judge cannot deal with the said legal conflict due to several reasons.

      MÜZÂRAA: It comes to mean a contract which is executed to make agricultural and to divide income as decided between each other and it is a type of company. For example to perform a contract in such a way that field and seed from a part and action, cows and machinery from other side or field from a part and seed and action from other side or field, seed, cows and machinery from a part  and only action from other part will be is şirket-i müzâraa and three of them is valid.

      MÜZÂYEDE: It means to increase and enhance. It also comes to mean to put renting of foundation's real estates and incomes out tender to give to demander person offering the highest price. Its opposite is "münâkasa".

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      N

      NAKİP: It comes to mean a person who is the eldest of a community and who deals with works of community. Also it comes to mean those called as zatnakibü'l-eşrâf kaymakamı who are appointed to look after with affairs and matters of Nakibü'l-eşrâf, şürefa and persons whose descend comes from Sadet-i Kirâm, in the other words from prophet's (S. A.) ancestry. They are appointed to replace of nakibü'l-eşrâf in countries.  

      NAKÎB-İ İMÂRET :It is deserved of Nekâbet term. It is used in the meaning of nakib and assistant in foundation. It comes to mean assistant of nakîb-i imâret sheikh and supervisor of imaret works.

      NARH - NARK : It means value of sold thing. It is called as si'r in Arabic. Its plural is es'âr. Es'âr and tes'îr means to set a fixed price.

      NAZIR: It comes to mean a person who determines and supervises the works. It is used in the meaning of trustee in foundation terminology. Also it comes to mean a person who is appointed by foundation and judge to supervise to trustee's actions.

      NÂZIRI IMARET: See İmâret Nazırı.

      NAZIR-I VAKF: It comes to mean a person who supervises trustee's actions and transactions and inspects them. Nazır is used in the meaning of trustee in some countries. Nazır don't intervene trustee's actions and transactions and he only examines whether they are suitable to creator's of waqf conditions and meşrûtün-leh's interests or not. He gives advices about these matters if required. In case of corruption he informs to competent authorities. Creators of a waqf appoints nazır for their foundations in some foundation certificate - charters. A foundation's nazır cannot be submitted tevliyet of the said foundation and foundation's trustee cannot be submitted supervision of the foundation.

      NEKKAD-I KENDÜM: It comes to mean a person who shells and cleans the wheat in foundation institutions such as İmârethânes ve hastahânes.

      NEKKÂD-I ÜRZ: It comes to mean a person who cleans the rice in charity foundation institutions such as İmârethâne ve hastahâne.

      NEKKAD: It comes to mean a employee in charge who follows Müessesât-ı hayrîyye's servants i terms of suitability to working hours and determines their discontinuations and warns them in this subject. 

      NESL: It means offspring. It express' sons and daughters and their accessories.

      NESLEN BA'DE NESLIN: It means from generation to generation. It does not show the order as Batnen ba'de batnin. For example if creator of a waqf dedicates some emvaas in his/her foundation certificate - charters and if he/she says that income of his/her foundation will be given to his/her child and child of his/her child neslen ba'de neslin and if he/she stipulates that ba'del'inkırâz will be spent for poors, income of foundation is given them equally the regardless of batın.

      NEZARET : It comes to mean to look after in dictionary. It means to look after and protect and inspect in terminology.

      NIKZ-I VAKF: It is wreckage of foundation.

      NİZÂMLI GEDİK: It comes to mean Sultan Mahmud haremeyn icâreteynli foundation gediks.  

      NUKÛD-I MEVKÛFE: It means dedicated money. Although it is necessary that good to be dedicated must be real estate, according to manners and customs money foundation is allowed. For example if someone dedicates TL 10.000 and if he/she says that this money will be loaned with interest to third persons and if he/she stipulates that poor school students will be given a suit every year, this foundation becomes nukûd vakfı.

      NÜZÛL ANİL-VAZÎFE: If responsibles such as Mütevellî and câbi relinquish from their responsibilities it means nüzul anil - vazife.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Ö

      ÖRF: It means good custom. This expression is used both in work and in statement. Custom may be good and bad; but örf is work and statement which are always good.

      ÖRF-İ BELDE GEDİĞİ: It comes to mean a type of usufruct. Usufruct established to construct building on some property land within cities and towns such as İzmir, Manisa and Bursa and to plant tree and to give a certain price to owners of land from year to year provided that they remain in place is called as örf-i belde gediği. This right is certified in land registry offices and buildings and trees are registered separately and their places are registered separately on behalf of owners and some of them are marked like '' on hire place '' and '' .. From örf-i beldesi of...''. For example if name of owner of land who signed first contract Hasan Ağa, it is said from Hasan Ağa's örf-i beldesi.

      Right of disposition regarding these places belongs to owners of building and tree. Oners of land may only request determined price but they cannot increase this price.

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      P

      PAFTOS GEDİĞİ: It means permanent usufruct from some land outside city and town. Usufruct established to construct building and to plant tree on some lands other than cities and towns such as İzmir, Manisa and Bursa and to give a certain price to owners of place every year is called as Paftos Gediği. These rights are registered into land register office and building and tree are registered on behalf of owners and these rights are called as Paftos Gediği.

      It is decided in a judicial opinion that these places will recourse to their owners or their successors if tree and gürum perish. There are detailed information about these gediks in page 61 of third section of work named (Mukarrerât-ı Samiye ve Adliye).

      It means gedik disposition established by ashab on property land under örf-i belde name and their places are really property of supply owners and gedik owners give its icare (rent ) determined annualy and there they have right to decide for building.  Sale of their places is performed by court and assignment of buildings is performed before owners and duty price of five percent for gedik and duty transfer of two and a half percent are paid by land owners. Land owners have this privilege, because they are not capable on the subject of moving of building and discharge of building expenses and leasing out third persons as they wishes according to property law and determined leasing price is a low amount, a norm is established that adequate price  will be completed by this allocation. Therefore sales and donations of these buildings are performed by owner's decisions and if owner dies they are assigned to successor and if there is no successor they are assign to Beytül-male.

          

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      R

      RAVZA-İ MUTAHHARA: Ravza means garden. Its plural is riyâz. Ravza-i mutahhara is our esteemed prophet's Merkad-i Mübâreke  in Medine-i Münevvere.

      REHN-İ KAVİ: It comes to mean a pledge whose value correspondents to debt amount or is less than debt amount and is adequate to pay debt in case of default of debtor. 

      RAKABE: In fact it means neck. Also entity and essence of one thing are called as rakabe.

      RAKABE ETMEK: It comes to mean to add galle of a foundation to foundation.

      REŞİD: It means someone who has a grasp of Umûr ( affairs ) ve mesâliha and who avoids of spending in defiance of religious provisions and mind.

      REY'İ VAKF: Rey means nema excessive and interest. Under this consideration galle and income of foundation are called as rey'i vakf.

      RİBAT: It derived of rabt word. It means relation. It is an infinitive like mürabata. Therefore it means to be ready and to be at homeland's service to protect the motherland from offense of enemy in boundaries. Accordingly quarters and tekyes where residence soldiers and warriors in boundaries are called as ribat.

      RİBH: It means income and interest obtained via trade. Also interest of money is called as ribh.

      RIBH-İ MÜLZEM: It comes to mean ribh(faiz) which is converted into debt form by a legal transaction.

      RITL: It corresponds to one hundred and thirty dirhems. According to Kamus's statement there are two kinds of rıtl. One of them is Şami and other is Bağdadi. Şami rıtl is 480 dirhems and Bağdadi rıtl is 128 dirhems. According to people of some countries, measure unit which covers two handfuls cereals is called as rıtl and it corresponds to 128 dirhems. Usage in Hicazda is several. Cerre is used in Tripoli instead of rtl. Each cerre six gıraf and each gıraf 560 dirhems.

      RUSÛM: It is plural of resim. Resim is used in the meaning of tax in financial terminology.

      RUSÛM-I ÖRFÎYYE : It means resims which are not like religious resims and collecting of which is ordered by sultan. As Çift bozan akçesi.

      RUSÛM-I ŞER'İYYE: Rüsüm is plural of resim. Resims collection of which is lawfull in terms of religious rules like A'şar are called as Rüsüm-ı Şer'iyye.

      RÜŞD: It consists of righteousness and goodwill.

       

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      S

      SADAKA: It comes to mean a good which is assigned to poors non-controversial for good deed. Also goods which are given to poors without being in return for service are within the scope of sadaka. Good given to rich persons non-controversial is called as grant and gift.

      SADAKA-İ MEVKÛFE: Express wordings used for disposition of foundation. As I dedicated. I performed Sadaka-i mevkûfe sentence may be said and foundation comes into existence with this sentence.

      SADAKA-İ MÜEBBEDE: It means elfâz-ı vakıf like adak-i mevkûfe.

      SADRİ - SADRİYE: It contains many meanings and in this way it is a modal derived of sadr which means chest. According to father child is called as sulbi and sulbiye. According to mother child is called as sadri and sadriye. For example if man Sulbi oğlum and sulbiye kızım are said and if woman sadri oğlum ve sadriye kızım are said.

      SAKK: It is taken to Arabic from Persian çek word.  It means hit and written thing is called as sakk. Writs and documents issued by judge are named as sakk in terminology. Science mentioning from this subject is called as ilm-i sakk. Other than these bonds and documents received and submitted among people and their wording are called as sakk. Its plural is sükük. See Sebk.

      SALİH: It means a person who is not famous with serious misconduct and whose goodness prevails to his /her malfeasance. Its plural is sulehâ. If creator a waqf stipulates a matter to someone who is from suleha, he/she means those who have these qualifications.

      SAN'AT - SINÂAT:They are derived of sun' or san' infinitive. Sun means to perform good work. Every sun is a action but every action is not sun. Because good and bad action are called as action. In this case san'at means good action. Sınâat means hırfet ( work, art) occurring with mümârese (predisposition ) and rüsuh ( a person whose basic knowledges are strong). Such works may be called as hırfet but to use sınâat term for them becomes more suitable. San'at and sınâat have same meaning. It is stated in Külliyât-ı Ebü'l-Beka that san'at is used in mahsusât and sınâat is used out of mahsusât.

      SANDÜKİ: It comes to mean treasuer.

      SEBET: It means evidence and document. When it is said that he/she does not have sened and sebet, it comes to mean that he/she does not have evidence and document.

      SEBK: It means to cast metals such as golden and silver in dictionary. In sakk terminology hidden meaning of documents such as writs and evidence is called as sebk, their wording and phrases are called as sakk. So to say meani such as golden and silver are filtered from mould mesâbe ( degree, rank) to wording and phrases. In this sentence meani is compared to golden and silver and wording and phrases are compared to mould.  

      SENED: It means trusted and supported thing in dictionary. Document written regarding transactions such as contract and confession both before judge and outside are called as sened in manners and customs. As debt security, bill of sale and deed of gift. Writs and documents written by judge are called as sened and senedât-ı şer'iyye comes to this meaning.

      SEVAB: It means gift of good deed implemented to attain God's mercy and forgiveness and Prophet's intercession.

      SEYYİB: It express a woman who lives together with a man in legal and illegal manner. Seyyib term in foundation certificate - charters are commented in this way. 

      SILA: It come to mean benevolence and goodness. Interests granted by foundation without being in return for service are called as sıla.

      SILA-İ RAHİM: It means to inquire after health through visiting or letter or to do favour to relative as financial.

      SİCİL: In fact general ledger to which is registered matters such as events, uhud and judgements is called as sicil. Afterwards it becomes custom for ledger which is allocated to register writs and documents. Today some bound books (mücelledât) such as deed title and population books are named as sicil. As land registry, population registry and trade registry.

      SİKAYE - SÜKAYE:  It comes to mean a place such as well, fountain and pool which is dedicated for water drinking of animals and humans. Distribution of zamzam water for hajis in Mekke-i Mükerreme  is called complaint service and someone who implements this service is called as Ka'be Saka.

      SİRDÂB: It means a place like cellar established underground to become cool in hot times of summer. It is called as damp and dity. It is transferred to Arabic from Persian serdâb word. In fact although they are established to cool water, it becomes a habit to construct sirdab in smooth and large forms due to sitting to become cool in hot days.

      SOFA: It is falsified form of Soffe word. Space where doors of room are opened in house and high places such as sed and seki are named as sofa. Also empty places whose environment is surrounded with sed in two sides of tombs and fountains and cemeteries and family graves are called as sofa. Sofa terms shown in foundation certificate-charters are generally used in this meaning.

      SULBİ - SULBİYYE: Someone's son and daughter who born from his sulb. See Sadri-sadriye.

      SULTAN: It means monarch. Nim or tam may be independent.

      SURRE: It comes to mean purse. In Ottoman State money sent to Haremeyn, in the other words to poors and ulema of Mecca and Madinah, by Khilafat authority every year are called as surre and it was delivered under protection of a person ceremonial. This ceremony would be called as ( Surre Alayı) and person who is appointed to deliver surre to concerned place would be called as (Surre Emini) . In addition there was a  Surre Naibi.

      SÜFUR: It is plural of Sefr. Sefr has several meaning other than this. Boundaries of states are called as sefr and there are police stations to prevent brigandage, theft and smuggling and to obstacle entrances and exits without license to this places.  These police stations are called as boundary police stations. Sefr is established to passage places of bandits and police stations are constructed to these places if required. 

      SÜRE: Each of 114 parts in Kur'an-ı Kerim is called as sure.

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Ş

      ŞEÂİR-İ VAKF: It comes to mean (hayrât) pious foundation's servants and similar requirements in the event that they are absence the foundation is null and void.  Similar requirements are those: imam for small mosque, preacher, muezzin and lighting; doctor, patient care and equipments and drugs for management of hospitals.  

      ŞEHİD: It comes to mean a person dying for God's sake. This term is separated into two parts as real and entity personality in terms of ethereal and earthly in terminology of iskamic law. Those who dies in battle field or is killed by rebels and bandits or found deads in body of which there is seam in battle war are real şehids. Those who are drown in water and burns in fire and dies in foreign land and remains under earth and travels to afterlife due to cholera and plague and during birth or at the end of puerperal period and diseases such as pleurisy are judicial şehids. That is they attain şehid's good deed in afterlife. Provisions on the subject of this is explained in detail in books of Islamic law. 

      ŞERÂİT-İ İSTİBDÂL: İstabdâl are some conditions and provisions required to be valid. If real estate of foundation does not become unusable or does not meet its income the expenses or judge's and and sultan's permission are not available and place and location of real estate to be taken as price is not low from place and location of foundation's real estate in terms of honor and demand, these are accepted as istibdâl. Conditions sucha as Judge'd permission and state of necessity is required for istibdâl of foundations which are not entailed. If istibdâl is stipulated by foundation these conditions are not required; but it is condition that it is necessary not to be gabn-i fahiş ( excessive deceit )  and place and location of müstebdelin mevkii is not low from place and location of müstebdelün-bihin in terms of honor and demand in meşrut istibdâl as in istibdâl to be fulfilled by reason of necessity. 

      ŞERÂİT-İ VAKF: It means declaretions which state creator of waqf's wishes related to foundation.  They are related with management of goods dedicated by creator of a waqf, allocation of incomes and who will conduct his/her foundation. For example if someone dedicates several real estates and states that they will be leased out through icâre-i vâhide ( a type of leasing ) and . lira will be given to imam of mosque and . lira will be given to preacher of mosque and . lira will be given for needs both of mosques from obtained amount and remain amount will be his/her child batnen ba'de batnin and his/her foundation will be managed by himself/herself during his/her life and his/her foundation will be managed by his/her eldest child after his/her death, he/she states his/her wishes related to management of his/her foundation and spending of income and who will manage tevliyet. Other similar conditions may be added  to these conditions. Creator of a waqf is obligated to perform under conditions complying with religious rules and nature and provisions of foundation. 

      ŞEYH-İ İMÂRET: It comes to mean a person who conducts imaret and entertains visitors and accepts the poors and helpless persons and helps them.

      ŞEYHÜ'L - İSLÂM: While firstly it is a title given to the highest persons who are competent to solve problems and conflicts among people as scientific and who are known with his merit and science, afterwards this title is fallocated to persons appointed by sultan to ifta authority ( a authority giving fetwa) as authority of muftis, kadis and Tarik-ı ilmiyye ( religious sciences ).

      First Şeyhü'l-islâm is Mehmed Şemsüddin-i Fenâri Efendi in Second Sultan Murad in Ottoman. Very great and excellent scholars are appointed to this authority. The most famous of them are Şemsüddin-i Fenâri, Molla Hüsrev Mehmet Efendi, Molla Gürani, İbn-i Kemal Ahmed Şemsüddin Efendi, İbnüs Su'ud, Hoca Sa'düddin Efendi and Yahya Efendi. There are life histories of 124 Şeyhü'l-islâms and their fetwas bearing their manuscript answers and signatures in İlmiyye Salnâmesi (Almanac) printed in Matbaa-i Âmire in 1334. 

      ŞİFÂ-İ ŞERİF: It is a famous work compiled to explain and describe the character of our esteemed prophet and great moral and its author is Ebül-fazi Kaadi İyâz bin Musa died in 526. Many comments are written regarding the said work. The most famous of them is Aliyyü'l-kaari's and Omerü-arâzî's comments consisting of respectively two volumes and four volumes. It is stipulated to read and to learn this work in madrasahs in some foundation certificate - charters.

      ŞURÛT-I VAKF: See Şerâit-i vakf.

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

     T

     TABBÂH: It is derived of tabh infinitive which means cooking. It states a person who cooks organizations such as hospital, imaret and tekye.

      TAHSÎSÂT: It is plural of tahsîs word. Tahsîs comes to devote and determine something for only a matter in dictionary.

      TAHSÎSÂT KABİLİNDEN VAKF: They are places dedicated in the form of irşasi vakıf ( see irşadi vakıf ) while it is Arâzi-i emîrîyye and are separated in three parts.1) Places whose miri menfaats ( interests belonging to state ) are only dedicated and allocated by sultan for a purpose provided that its rakabe and right of disposition belong to treasury. 2) Places whose right of disposition is only dedicated and allocated by sultan for a purpose provided that its miri menfaats ( interests belonging to state ) and rakabe belong to treasury.3) Places whose both rights of disposition and miri menfaats ( interests belonging to state ) are only dedicated and allocated by sultan for a purpose provided that rakabe belong to treasury.See Tahsis-i Sahih, Tahsis-i Gayr-i Sahih.

      TAHSİS-İ GAYR-İ SAHİH: It means to allocate a part of income belonging to treasury to a purpose for which there is no any allowance in treasury. Also it is called as irsâd-ı gayr-i sahih. It is possible to cancel this type of allocations.

      TAHSİS-İ SAHİH: It means to allocate a part of income belonging to treasury to a purpose related to expenses of treasury. This action may be implemented directly by sultan or by others through sultan's permission. It is not possible to cancel this type of allocations. Only it may be exchanged by determining a salary and allocation from treasury equal to this amount.  

      TAPU: is a Turkish word and it means to obey and listen to advice. In terminology it comes to mean prepaid money and against tefviz ( see tefviz) of land and a deed given officer. Those who are authorized to make tefviz to land to third persons and to give deed by means of acquisition and tasarrufu mübeyyin ( declaration ) are called as land title.

      TA'VİZ BEDELİ: Taviz means provison and equivalent of anything. In foundation terminology it refers to price to be taken in return for  assignment of mukataalı ve icâreteynhi real estates to their owners. As per provisions arranged by article fourth of Foundations Law numbered 2762, it is forbidden to bind foundation's real estates to mükataa ve icâretyn and relationship of possessions of existing lands with mukataa and real estate with icâreteyn is broken with foundations in return for mukatta for one year and a consideration equal to twenty fold of icâre-i müeccele ( see icâre-i müeccele) and by registering of possessions of this land and ebniyyes to land register office on behalf of owners.

      TEÂMÜL: It means commonly used. It is synonymous of piece word. For example if it is said that dedicating this kind of foundations is habitual, it means that dedicating of these is custom among people.

      TEBERRU: It comes to mean to give and grant anything which is not condition to repay to another person. It covers grant, alms, gift and donation.

      TEBZİR: If someone spends his/her good for a purpose other than need, this action comes to mean tebzir. Unnecessary spending is named as waste. Different between tebzi and waste is that: inappropriate spending is called as wast and unnevesssary is called as tebzir. See İsraf.

      TEFTİŞ MAKAMI ( SUPERVISING AUTHORITY): It comes to mean an authority which inspects management and transactions of executive organizations, in the other words, trustees and which arranges works of organization and which takes required measurements as per Civil Code. Organization is subject to inspection of this authority according to its purpose. If an organization is a legal entity, that which authority will perform inspection and that which officer or institution will perform this task in foundations related to state, province, municipality and village is not determined.

      TEFVİZ: If someone assigns and submit his/her work to anybody else, this action is calld as tefviz in dictionary. In land terminology it means to assign and leave right of disposition of mîrî arazi to a person by means of auction and appraisal.

      TEMESSÜK: It is derived of mesk. It means to preserve firmly and shelter. Promissory notes are called as temessük since they are preserved. Promissory notes received and given related to transactions such as purchasing, sellingi lenting and borrowing are called as temessük in our many villages. Other than these formerly documents given for foundation places by officers of foundations and trustees are called as temessük as well as documents given by feoffe and holders of fief accepted as '' owner of land '' and tax-farmer are called as temessük. 

      TEMETTU': It means profit and gain. It states profit and interest obtained by means of renting of Akarât-ı mevkûfe and selling of its income and gained from accretions of foundation's money loaned to third persons.

      TESBİL: It means to dedicate.

      TESCİL: Registering of a writs or document to registry book of court and registering of anything requested to be certified to a special book are called as tescil. Decision related to lüzumi vakıf is also named as registration. For example after someone dedicated and delivered his/her good to trustee appointed by him/her if he/she wishes to take back from trustee since he/she relinquish from dedicating and in this case if judge gives lüzumi vakıf ( see lüzumi vakıf ) decision without trial, this is called as registration of foundation.

      TESCİLİ İSTİBDAL: It means to decide with correct and necessity of istibdal so that cancel is possible.

      TESCÎL-İ VAKF: if judge gives lüzumi vakıf ( see lüzumi vakıf ) decision, this is called as tescil-i vakıf. See Tescîl.

      TE'SİS İDÂRE UZVU: It comes to mean a person who manages and represent the foundation as per Civil Code.  It may be one or more person. They are appointed by foundation; if foundation does not appoint, they are appointed by supervising authority. 

      TEVKİ'-TEVKİİ: Tevki' means to do something in the scope of tefsil. In terminology engagement put on document is called as tevki'-Tevkii. In fact it is infinitive, Afterwards it refers to charter and sultan's engagement  imposed evâmir-i Sultaniyye. Müvekki-i sadr-ı kitab means a person signed balâ of book.

      TEVSİ-İ İNTİKALLİ GEDİK: It comes to mean icâreteynli vakıf gediks ( see icâreteynli vakif gediks) assigned to some successors of owners.

      TİLÂVET: It means to read Koran.According to an opinion, to read every word is called as tilâvet. Also to read every word is called as Kırâet.

      TULÛ-I GALLE: It comes to mean arising of foundation's income and it changes according to foundation. Arising of galle consisting of cultivable things occurs with granulating and being usable of cultivable things and arising of galle consisting of crops occurs with growing of fruits and arising of galle consisting of leasing prices occurs with instalment times.

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      U

      UHT: It means sister. Its plural is ehavât which comes to mean sisters. If it becomes blood sister it is stated as uht li-ebeveyn, if it becomes sister of same father it is stated as uht lieb and if it becomes sister of same mother it is stated as uht li-üm.

      UKBÂ: It is noun. It means a penalty corresponding to a deed. Since there is award and punishment place of deeds performed in the world, afterlife is called as alem-i ukbâ or dâr-ı ukbâ. It means punishment world. Its opposite is dâr-ı dünya (this world ).

      UKIYYE-VUKIYYE : It means 400 dirhems in Arabic. It is used as vukıyye in many old foundation certificate-charters, old laws and regulations.

      UMÛR-I HAYRİYYE: Umûr is plural of emr. Emir and umûr-ı hayrîyye comes to mean useful and benovelent works.

      UMÛR-I TEVLİYYET: It means works belonging to foundation and required to be performed by trustee. To keep foundation's asset, to manage successfully, to repair musakkafat to spend income of foundation in accordance with creator's of waqf, to prevent the offense to be implemented to foundation's assets and to give account to concerned authorities for opened cases in favor of or against foundation are considered as trustee's duty.

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Ü

      ÜCRET-İ MÜECCELE: It means wage delayed. It is opposite of Ücreti muaccele and is synonymous of icâre-i müeccele. See İcâre-i muaccele, İcâre-i müeccele.

      ÜNSA: It means female. Its plural is inâs. Evlâd-ı zükûr and evlâd-ı inâs, evlâd-ı evlâd-ı zükûr and evlâd-ı evlâd-ı inâs terms are frequenly shown in foundation certificate-charters. According to language rules these words are commented and understood properly. As language rules are known, comments are made contrary to purposes of creator of a waqf and language rules.  See Evlâd-ı evlâd-ı zükûr.

      ÜSRÛBİ: It means Kurşuncu. Usrûb and sürb comes to mean lead. Üsrûbî is a person who prepares and casts required leads for foundation building's ang domes.

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

     V

     

     VÂİZ: It means a person who make explanations and gives advices about Islamic subjects to community in mosques and small mosques. Vaiz's task is very important for community. Although it is compulsory to read and learn religious rules for every müslim, it may be possible that some people don't read and some people don't know these subjections although they read. Happiness of world afterlife are depending on knowledge and obeying to religious rules. Vaiz tells rules of islamiyet and makes explanations and gives advices about how will be behaved in accordance with era. Therefore religious discourse ( mev'iza) is a Islamic task. Vaiz and advice are given a very big important by all islam states and islam scholars.

      VÂKIF: It means a person creator of a waqf. See Vakf.

      VAKF: It means to prohibit a real estate from assignments and transfers as God's possession so that its interest belong to people. Person who dedicates is called as creator of a waqf and real estate deicated is called as mevkûf and purpose stipulated is called as meşrutün-leh and mevkûfuıı-aleyh. For example if inn foundation and its galle and income are allocated to poor persons, this inn is called as mevkûf and poors are called as meşrûtun-leh and mevkûfun-aleyh.

      VAKIF AKAAR: It comes to mean foundation or real estate which provide income. Real estates such as inn, bathhouse and garden which provide income and which are dedicated to ensure required expenses by means of looking after, observing, repairing and improving and reconstruction the charity institutions such as mosque, madrasah and hospital and similar places are called as vakıf akaar.

      VAKFA HİYANET: If trustee acts an illicit action about foundation, it is called as vakfa ihanet. Actions such as to rent foundation's real estate with excessive deficit from adequate pay intentionally although there is no a necessity and to claim that foundation's real estate belongs to him / her and not to prove it, to spent and consume foundation's galle against founder's condition and to neglect foundation's improvement and protection and to damage to foundation are an example related to vakfa ihanet. 

      VAKF-I EHLİ: It comes to mean foundations belonging to child, child of child, relative, ensab and other persons. Its opposite is hayri vakıf such as mosque, small mosque, school, madrasah, hospital, library and similar foundations.

      VAKF-I FUZÛLÎ: If someone dedicates a thing to which he/she does not have without owner's permission it is called as vakf-I fuzuli and it is subject to owner's permission. If owner does not permit it is null and void. Even if creator of waqf has the said real estate before real estate of owner gives permission real estate in question is not deemed as dedicated. For example if someone dedicates real estate of a person from his/her relative unnecessary and the said person dies without giving permission for this foundation, real estate in question is not deemed as dedicated

      VAKF-I GAYR-İ LÂZIM: It means a foundation whose cancellation is possible.That is, if someone dedicates his/her inn and wishes to recourse from his/her foundation because he/she incures to extreme poverty, he/she may demand from judge to be abolished his/her foundation and whereupon if judge foundation abolishes, inn remains as his/her possession. If founder dies, his/her successors may cause to be abolished the foundation by appliying to judge. In addition if someone dedicating his/her real estate through will as long as he/she does not die in his/her will as musır the said real estate does not take out from his/her property and he/she may recourse from his/her will compromisingly and actually.

      VAKF-I GAYR-İ SAHİH: Conditons of these foundation may be summarized as follows:

      1-)Foundation should be component to assignment and donation,

      2-)Foundation's consent will be

      3-) Foundation should not be interdict

      4-) Real estate dedicated  should be akar (real estate ) or Foundation should be known real estate

      5-) Real estate dedicated  should be good and should not be deyn.

      6-) Real estate dedicated  should be definit

      7-) Real estate dedicated  should be founder's property

      8-) Foundation should be müneccez  

      9-)Hiyar-ı şart should not be in foundation

      10-) Ebniye ve eşcâr to be dedicated should not be müstehikkul'kal'

      11-)Purpose should be kurbet and worship. Foundation which does not have these conditions is valid. See Vakf-ı müneccez, müstehikku'l-kal'.

      VAKF-I IRSÂDİ: See İrsâdî vakıf, tahsisat kabillnden vakıf.

      VAKF-I LAZIM: It means a foundation whose cancellation is not possible. See Lüzûm-ı vakıf.

      VAKF-I MERİZ: If someone dedicates in death disease it is called as vakf- i meriz. Death disease is such a disease that if patient is male he is unable to perform works outside his house and if patient is female she is unable to perform works in her inside house since they have necrophobia. If patient's disease is permanent and continues one year it is accepted that patient's disease increase and  unless his state changes this is considered as clear. If disease becomes stronger and he dies before one year his state from exacerbation time to his death is deemed as maraz-ı mevt (death disease)

      VAKF-I' MEVKÛF: It means foundation of dedicated thing and it is not valid. For example whoever icâreteynli vakıf dedicates it is his/her foundation. Those who are permanent tenants of these places cannot be dedicated these places again for another purpose because such a foundation means foundation of interest, this is not valid. In addition if truseet dedicates for purposes by means of changing some conditions of a foundation belonging to third persons by adding a real estate from himself / herself, this action is invalid.

      VAKF-I MUALLÂK: It means a foundation performed depending on a condition and it is invalid. For example if even if someone says that if his/her missing son comes or he/she relieves from that disease ... His/her foundation will be dedicated and afterwards his/her soncomes or he/she recovers, foundation is invalid. But if someone says that if his/her son walks away from accident his/her real estate will be dedicated and if it is understood that his/her son walks away from accident in foundationtime, foundation is valid.

      VAKF-I MUZAF: It means a foundation including in future time and since it is condition to be müneccez for foundation vakf-ı muzaf is not valid. For example if someone says that he / she will dedicated his/her real estate as from beginning of next year this foundation is invalid. In addition someone says that his/her real estate will be dedicated afer his/her death thi foundation does not come into existence. But if this is dedicated through will and one third of his/her real estate is dedicated for this foundation or if successors give permission, all real estate is deemed as foundation. See Vakf-ı Müneccez.

      VAKF-I MÜNECCEZ: It comes to mean a foundation which is subject to a condition and which is not subject to a time and which enures immediately. It is condition that foundation must be müneccez and foundation must not be relevant with existing and indefinite thing. See Vakf-ı Muallak.

      VAKF-I MÜRETTEB: It means a foundation where there is a clause related to order in its conditions. If someone says that he/she  stipulates galle or tevliyet of his/her foundation to his/her child and afterward to child of his/her child batnen ba'de batnin, it becomes vakf-ı müretteb. In this case order is complied. For example if founder says that he/she  stipulates galle or tevliyet of his/her foundation to his/her child batnen ba'de batnin and if there is a child from first generation galle and tevliyet are not given to child from second generation. Also state is so for other generations.

      VAKF-I MÜŞA': It means a foundation which has Hisse-i şayia. This state does not prevent to be valid of foundation. But to dedicate hisse-i şayia (şayi hissesi ) of a real estate as small mosque and grave is not valid.

      VAKF-I MÜŞTEREK: It comes to a foundation which is established by two or three persons. For example if A and B dedicate inns and shops which are common şayian between them for a charity purpose, foundation becomes common and action is performed according to conditions stipulated regarding their foundations' management, spending of income and tevliyet in foundation certificate charter. 

      VAKF-I MÜTEÂREF: It means a foundation whose validity is according to the custom. Since continuity in foundation is condition thing dedicated must be real estate. To dedicate movable is not valid. But if dedicating of movable in a country is accepted as manners and customs, dedicated of that movable is valid. For example book and mushaf-ı şerîf for reading by demanders and money to be spent for charity purposes by means of operating, furnishing to be used in school and madrasah and clothing and jewelry to be given to brides in weddings and animals such as sheep and goat whose results will be spent for charities and wheat and barley and cereal to lend to those who require seed are valid according to manners and customs.

      VAKF-I SAHİH: It comes to mean a foundation which is legal in terms of and correctness and qualification. See Vakf-ı gayr-i sahih.

      VAKFİYE: It is a document which includes founder's statement and judge's oral hearing and decision regarding foundation. Foundations certificate charters include that clause:

      1-) Sections of surahs and hadiths regarding thanks God and and good deeds of foundation.

      2-)Dedicated real estates

      3-)How dedicated foundation will be conducted.

      4-)Usage place of income.

      5-) Who will conduct the foundation

      6-)Judge's decisions related foundation's correctness and necessity.

      7-) Last date and judge's seal on certificate

      There are several foundation charter certificates some of which are gilded in Kuyûd-ı Kadime ve Foundations Archive of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre.  

      Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü Kuyûd-ı Kadime ve Vakıflar Arşivinde müteaddit ve bazıları rnüzehheb yani altun yaldızlı vakfiyeler vardır.

      VAKFİYET: It means that a good is dedicated and prohibited from personal use.

      VAKF ALE'L-ÂMME: It means a foundation which is established to be used by public, that is both riches and poors. Institutions such as mosque, small mosque, grave, madrasah and general hospital etc.  There are some charity institutions that usufruct of them only belonging to poor persons. Hospital of meşrut foundation and student's equipment to be provided from foundation such as imaret and patiets' food and drugs, dedicated instutions such as hospital, school and madrasah to be performed from income of the foundation. Only poor persons benefit from such charity institutions even if foundation does not explain if founder stipulates that rich and poor persons will be benefited from them.

      VAKIFDA KİNÂYE: It is a pronoun used to determine the founder and his/her conditions. For example if founder says in his/her foundation certificate charter written in Turkish  that he/she stipulates the tevliyet of his/her foundation first for himself/ herself and afterward for his / her child, for his/ her child phrase refers to Mehmet's child. Accordingly when founder and his / her son dies, sons of founder's other sons cannot say that they participate in Mehmet's child saying for his / her child term refers to founder's child.

      VAKIFDAN RÜCU': It comes to mean to waive from dedicated foundation and to abolish it. Recourse is possible from foundation established by means of will as well as recourse is possible from Vakf-ı gayr-i lâzım. That is, testator may recourse from his/her will while he/she was alive in orally or actually.

      VAKIFDA ŞART-I BÂTIL: It is a condition which does not comply with religious rules and therefore deed is not performed by it.  For example  if a founder stipulates that account will not be performed even if founder feels that trustee betrays him and if a founder stipulates that tevliyet will not be dismissed even if betrayal is true, thi condition is null and void. Concerned authority looks its accounting if betrayal is felt and dismiss from tevliyet if betrayal realizes.

      VAKIF GEDİK: It means a gedik that is duly dedicated by owner or converted into a foundation.

      VAKIFLAR KÜTÜĞÜ: It comes to mean books where are registered belonging to foundation certificate charter and foundation in Kuyûd-ı Kadîme Department of General Directorate of Foundations. Today this department is called as Foundation Register Archive.

      VAKF Lİ'S-SEBÎL: It means Vakf ale'l-âmme. See Vakf ale'l-âmme

      VESSÂLE: It means to reach and combine one thing to another thing and it is derived of vasi. A document written to merge two foundations is called as vessale. For example if someone establishes a foundation after he/she establishes a foundation  and former foundation participate in second foundation, foundations certificate charters written related with this subject are called as vessale.

      VAZÎFE: It comes to mean given salary and ration from foundation's income and it consists of two parts. 1 - A duty in return for a service Hizmet karşılığı olan, 2 - A duty without being in return for a service. Duty that is in return for service is subject to wage. Its meşrutunleh is taken into account for duty that is without being in return for service. If meşrutunleh is rich the said duty is something like sıla and atiyye and If meşrutunleh is poor the said duty is something like alms. Wage provisions in wage and sıla provisions in sıla are valid.

      VAZÎFE-İ ŞÂGİRE: It comes to mean a vacant service. If necessary services such as imamet, rhetoric, teachership, doctorship becomes vacant, appointa are o,performed to these services. Saving may be performed for services that become vacant due to lack of income of foundation and that are not necessary.

      VEKİL-İ HARC: It means a person who buys good and supplies which is necessary for institutions such as hospital and school.

      VELED-İ BENÂT is sons and daughters of daughters. Accordingly if a foundation is stipulated for daughters, sons and daughters of foundeer's daughters will benefitfrom this condition.Because child wording and child wording includes in boy and girl. 

      VİRD: It means component read from Koran every night although it has other meanings. Its plural is evrâd. It is stipulated in foundation certificate charter that evrad will be cited to present to my soul in holy nights and a certain akçe will be given to citing person every month, one component is cited from Koran to present founder's soil in Ramazan.

      VELED-İ HÂDİS: It means borning child after founder and he/she may include or not in condition according to form of foundation. For example if creator of a waqf says that he/she stipulates his/her foundation's galle to his / her children and poor persons after his / her children become munkarız, children existing in time of foundation and borning children later are entitled to galle. If founder classifies his/her children provided that they are existing or mentions by specifying their names, children borning after founder don't include in meşrutunleh. For example if founder says that his / her foundation's galle will be stipulated to his / her living children today or that his / her foundation's tevliyet will be stipulated to his / her children, children borning after founder don't include in condition. Decree even in descendants is so. In case of condition for descendants, children living in foundation time or children borning later include in condition. But if founder cites from his/ her current descendants in particularly, children borning later don't include in condition.

      VELED-İ SULBİ: It means natural of a man. It doesn't include adopted child and foster child. Accordingly if galle of a foundation is stipulated to sulbi evlâd and child of child, adopted child dos not include in condition.

      VESİKA: It means thing to be entrusted. All kinds of bonds, writs and documents, in brief all and any written evidence are deemed as vesika. Its plural is vesâik.

     

     

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Y

      YAYLA: It means a land that people is used from grass and water in summer. It consists of two parts. 1- It means a plateau which is left and allocated to people of one or a few towns and people of some special places benefit from its grass and water and other people cannot benefit from it. Plateau tax is taken from people benefiting from plateau's grass and water as per their payment powers. Plateaus such as these kinds are not bought and sold and nobody can use it through title deed and it cannot be cultivated without being consent of people. 2- It is a plateau under responsibility of one or a few persons through title deed. There is no any different of this kind of plateaus from cultived land in terms of decree but its grass and water are used by means of usufruct. Usufruct of these plateaus only belongs to those who are disposed individually or jointly with title deed. Plateau tax is taken from these as per their payment powers.

      YETİM: It means child, either girl and boy, dying his/her mother and father. Its plural is eytâm and yetâmâ. If creator of a wagf stipulates in his/her foundation certificate-charter that so many will be given to orphans of that person from his/ her foundation's galle, according to condition share is given for poor children of that person, either girl and boy. But when the children become adult orphanhood and galle allocation are not applied.

      

      

      

      

Go to TOP

      

      

      

      

      Z

      ZAMM-I MÜTEVELLİ: If judge gives anybody else to trustee to help him if required, this action is called as zamm-ı mütevelli. Zamm-ı mütevelli are performed in foundations which are big and have many works. In addition appointed helper trustee works under supervision of trustee. Some scholars of Islamic law are named it as kayyim.

      ZÂKİRLER: It comes to mean those who cites prays and divines during religiou ceremony in dervish lodges. There are useful information in estimable researcher Zeki Pakal's work named as Tarih Deyimleri ve Terimleri ( History Phrases and Terms)

      ZÂVÎYE: It means the smallest of dervish lodges. Its plural is zevâyâ.

      ZÂVİYEDÂR: It comes to mean senior guide.

      ZÂVİYE-NİŞÎN: It means a turuk-i aliyye's ( a sect ) dervish sitting in zaviye.

      ZEKER: It means male. Its plural is zükûr.

      ZEVİ'L-ENSÂB: It means fellows and close relatives. Âl and cins and Ehl-i Beyt and erhâm ( kinship by blood) and ensâb ( plural of lineage) come to the same meaning.

      ZEVÂİD: It means remaning balance after income of foundation is given to meşrutunlehs. Although it is expressed as thing given to scholars and poors from income of foundation without being in return for a service in some Islamic law books, it is not used by us in this meaning. 

      ZEYL-İ VAKFİYYE: It means statements performed by creator of waqf under foundation certificate-charter regarding foundation or foundation's conditions or foundation impelemented in addition according to preserved authority.

      ZEYL-İ MEŞÂYİH: It comes to mean preachers. Since they are registered at the end of ilmiye register kept in Bâb-ı Meşihatte ( book catalogue belonging to shaykh al-islam's authority) they would be called as zeyl meşayih. The highest degree of this preacher was Ayasofya Kürsü Şeyhliği. See Kürsi Şeyhi.

      ZİYÂFETHÂNE: It means establishments dedicated to accommodate and to wine and dine poor persons such as visitors and travelers.

      ZÜRRİYET: It comes to mean generation. See Nesil.

      ZÜRRÎ VAKIF: It is a foundation that is subject to offspring. For example if creator of a waqf stipulates that his/her foundation's galle will be given to his/her child and child of his/her child or child of so-and-so and child of child of so-and-so, it becomes as a zürrî vakıf

Go to TOP